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INFORMATION PROCESSING (Three lectures). Readings (across three weeks) Essay by Greg Yates on homepage (which will mirror today’s lecture) (b) Woolfolk and Margetts , chapts 7 and 8. I suggest you read these together as a single input experience .

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information processing three lectures

INFORMATION PROCESSING(Three lectures)

Readings (across three weeks)

Essay by Greg Yates on homepage (which will mirror today’s lecture)

(b) Woolfolkand Margetts, chapts 7 and 8. I suggest you read these together as a single input experience.

(However, Wk1 correlates more with Pp 264-285:

Wk2 is Pp 285-294 and Pp 320-330:

Wk 3 is Pp 309 -319 and from chapter 9, Pp 353 -363)

how do we learn what has your edpsych told you so far by 21 august 2010
How do we learn? What has your Edpsych told you so far (by 21 August 2010)
  • A: Contiguity principles - as seen in classical conditioning, and simple associations.
  • B: Sensitivity to feedback - as seen in operant learning and reinforcement principles.
  • C: Sensitivity to social models and the examples provided by the social world around us.
  • D: Today - Our brains learn through experiencing information. What we see, hear, or read, may create significant learning. This is called information processing.
  • It is what you are doing now: 2:20 pm, 23 August, 2010.
across the 3 lectures
Across the 3 lectures
  • Today: Overview of general principles of how we acquire and retain information, that all teachers need to respect. Then bring in the Information Processing Theory at end.
  • Next week: Focus upon strategies the brain uses to store information.
  • Third lecture: Focus upon the knowledge base, and how we acquire expertise and problem solving skill.
overview of information processing three major themes
Overview of Information Processing: Three Major Themes
  • Principles of Acquisition
  • Principles of Memory
  • Principles of Overload
principles of acquisition
Principles of Acquisition
  • Learning is slow (i.e. years)
  • Humans have limited attention spans
  • We learn through distributed practice, (also called spacing effects).
  • Prior knowledge effects are powerful.
  • We need information to be structured.
  • We need to combine input modalities
principles of acquisition1
Principles of Acquisition
  • Learning is slow (i.e. years)
  • Humans have limited attention spans
  • We learn through distributed practice, (also called spacing effects).
  • Prior knowledge effects are powerful.
  • We need information to be structured.
  • We need to combine input modalities
how long does it take to acquire your skilfulness and expertise
How long does it take to acquire your skilfulness and expertise?

E.g., typing, surfboarding, statistical analysis, driving a car, becoming an electrician, learning to judge cattle.

  • Well, after 50 hours many basic skills acquired, but you will not cope with significant variations.
  • After 100 hours, you have the domain at a point of mastery: You are now competent.
  • The 10-year rule: It takes 10 years of deliberate practice to become expert within the domain.
slide10

Kruger, J. & Dunning, D. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognising ones’s own incompetence leads to inflated self-assessments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1121-1134.

principles of acquisition2
Principles of Acquisition
  • Learning is slow (i.e. years)
  • Humans have limited attention spans
  • We learn through distributed practice, (also called spacing effects).
  • Prior knowledge effects are powerful.
  • We need information to be structured.
  • We need to combine input modalities
serious limits to your attention
Serious limits to your attention
  • Naturally, you can have 20 minutes of focussed input. Then mind wandering occurs, inevitably.
  • A curious note: By itself, a lecture input experience will exceed your natural input processing level by a factor of 5.
  • Why? Because one piece of information takes 10 seconds to process. But, human speech will convey information around 150 words (or 30 propositions) p/minute. 30 or more possible units.
  • Per minute, your brain might assimilate perhaps 6 knowledge units. But in most conversations, or lectures, you are given around 30 units. Just what are the implications of this reality?
principles of acquisition3
Principles of Acquisition
  • Learning is slow (i.e. years)
  • Humans have limited attention spans
  • We learn through distributed practice, (also called spacing effects).
  • Prior knowledge effects are powerful.
  • We need information to be structured.
  • We need to combine input modalities
spacing a powerful effect
SPACING: A powerful effect
  • Person A learns to drive, 20 minutes a day over 10 days.
  • Person B also learns to drive but this is done over a single 200 minutes session, beginning at 9 am, finishing by 12:20 pm.
  • Which person is the better driver? Would you trust Person A ????
principles of acquisition4
Principles of Acquisition
  • Learning is slow (i.e. years)
  • Humans have limited attention spans
  • We learn through distributed practice, (also called spacing effects).
  • Prior knowledge effects are powerful.
  • We need information to be structured.
  • We need to combine input modalities
principles of memory
Principles of Memory
  • Recognition is easy: Recall is hard
  • Serial position effects: Primacy and recency.
  • Meaningfulness has strong effects.
  • Different skills decay at different rates.
  • Memory is constructive, not veridical.
  • Principle of savings (relearning)
  • Memories interfere with each other.

Proactive, and Retroactive effects. Getting rid of old knowledge is not easy, and learning is hindered by misconception effects

principles of memory1
Principles of Memory
  • Recognition is easy: Recall is hard
  • Serial position effects: Primacy and recency.
  • Meaningfulness has strong effects.
  • Different skills decay at different rates.
  • Memory is constructive, not veridical.
  • Principle of savings (relearning)
  • Memories interfere with each other.

Proactive, and Retroactive effects. Getting rid of old knowledge is not easy, and learning is hindered by misconception effects

principles of memory2
Principles of Memory
  • Recognition is easy: Recall is hard
  • Serial position effects: Primacy and recency.
  • Meaningfulness has strong effects.
  • Different skills decay at different rates.
  • Memory is constructive, not veridical.
  • Principle of savings (relearning)
  • Memories interfere with each other.

Proactive, and Retroactive effects. Getting rid of old knowledge is not easy, and learning is hindered by misconception effects

(Note: items in red, we will return to in the third lecture. But for the moment, let us move into overload)

principles of overload
Principles of Overload
  • Positive emotions are invoked by planning, goal setting, and goal achievement. But the moment of learning is highly stressful.
  • Learners may not know how to activate attention, what to look at, how to calibrate responses, or how to gauge success.
  • Your coping strategies must do three things (a) focus your attention, (b) assist your mental process, (b) control your emotions.
what will cause overload
What will cause overload?
  • Low levels of knowledge, or poor strategies.
  • Your expectations are set too high, unrealistic, or unable to be adaptively calibrated (i.e., to ‘pull back’)
  • Poor instruction you have been given.
  • Insufficient conditions of learning (environments).
  • Assessment applied too far close in time to learning opportunity.
  • Multitasking: As teachers, please be alert to the huge popular fallacy about how young people learn (e.g., the “digital native theory” which has no genuine validity within psychology).
principles of overload1
Principles of Overload
  • Positive emotions are invoked by planning, or goal setting, or goal achievement, OK. But the moment of learning is highly stressful.
  • Learners may not know how to activate attention, what to look at, how to calibrate responses, or how to gauge success.
  • Your personal coping strategies must do three things (a) focus your attention, (b) assist your mental process, (b) control your emotions.
overconfidence
Overconfidence
  • This is a natural trait.
  • It is quite healthy, but is more characteristic of novices, and the less skilled.
  • It is implicated in accidents (e.g. cars).
  • The critical thing about successful adaptation in life is the ability to ‘pull back’ after making an overly optimistic assessment.
  • (A lesson in life, surely?).
slide26

Kruger, J. & Dunning, D. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognising ones’s own incompetence leads to inflated self-assessments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1121-1134.

failure to contain overload what can happen
Failure to contain overload. What can happen?
  • The learner’s ability to process information drops far below optimal level.
  • May produce behaviour later regretted. (Eg parent ‘snaps’ at child. Teacher loses temper at student X).
  • Emotions arise, generally involving helplessness feelings.
  • Some individuals will react with aggression, and defensiveness as the ego needs protection.
we need a good theory
We need a good theory
  • The following slides depict the general theory we call Information Processing Theory
  • Developed around mid-1950s by numerous researchers, no one major name, but Atkinson was a major person in suggesting that memory storage systems are central to mental processing.
  • THIS IS NOT A COMPUTER MODEL. It invokes a poor analogy to suggest the ‘mind works like a computer’. In fact, it behaves quite unlike a computer.
the information processing system

Work Space -

Temporary Storage

Permanent Storage

Decision

making

The Information Processing system

ExecutiveControl Processes

Learn

Long-term

memory

Working

Memory

Sensory

Memory

Perception

Attention

Retrieve

the information processing system1

Work Space -

Temporary Storage

Permanent Storage

Decision

making

The Information Processing system

ExecutiveControl Processes

Learn

Long-term

memory

Working

Memory

Sensory

Memory

Perception

Attention

Retrieve

limits of the short term memory trace
Limits of the short term memory trace
  • Firstly, capacity:
    • 7 or 8 items of familiar materials (e.g. numbers).
    • 4 items when material is not familiar (e.g. foreign towns).
  • Secondly, duration:
    • fading out by 5 seconds.
    • gone by 15 seconds.
short term vs working memory what s the difference
Short-term Vs working memoryWhat’s the difference?
  • Think of STM as the basic biological entity within the mind, as a type of ‘store’ where items might be held, temporarily. Note it has a fixed capacity.
  • But WM is more than this. This is closer to consciousness in which you are using your entire mind to ‘work’ for you. Thus WM uses the STM and LTM, but also involves strategies, metacognition, imagery, and feelings.
  • Hence, the STM has ‘capacity’, but the WM has ‘contents’. On Internet you can find different tests for STM and WM.
if the mind is so limited then consider the following experiment
If the mind is so limited, then consider the following experiment
  • Students volunteer for a study of digit span testing, where they earn $5 for practicing this for up to an hour a day.
  • Goal is to see if they can increase the number of digits they can hold in WM.
  • Digit span test means receiving a string of numbers, then repeating them back correctly.
  • (Chase & Ericsson, 1981)
how is this done next week
How is this done? …Next week..
  • Youtube has many resources. Some OK, some very good:
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TausqSK9p9k&feature=related Dr Zimbardo: good straight material. About 3 mins.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-i6s4W5FYE&mode=related&search=Memory%20and%20study%20skills Quite interesting 6-min talk on how people can remember names better.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vwigmktix2Y Tragic case of brain damage wiping out short term memory system. Strokes, etc, can damage the memory system, and this is from a BBC film of a dramatic clinical case.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vsYCSmBcM0&mode=related&search=memory%20amnesia%20psychology You must watch this one. The researcher (Dr Anders Ericsson) is one of the people who helped with the digit span study cited in this lecture. TV news style, but very good.