Chapter 2: Building Vocabulary: Using Context Clues - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 2: Building Vocabulary: Using Context Clues

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  1. Chapter 2:Building Vocabulary: Using Context Clues Essential Reading Skills, 2/eKathleen McWhorter © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  2. What is Context? • Example: Tony noticed that the wallabies at the zoo looked like kangaroos. (What are wallabies?) • Example: Many people have phobias, such as fear of heights, a fear of water, or a fear of confined spaces. (What is a phobia?) © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  3. Types of Context Clues • Definition Clues • Synonym Clues • Example Clues • Contrast Clues • Inference Clues © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  4. Definition Clues • Writers define a word right after they use it. • They use words and phrases such as: • means • is • refers to • are called © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  5. Examples of Definition Clues • Example: Broad, flat noodles that are served covered with sauce or butter are called fettuccine. • Example: Corona refers to the outermost part of the sun’s atmosphere. © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.


  6. Synonym Clues • Writers provide a synonym or brief phrase to define the word. • The synonym can appear in the same sentence or in an earlier or later sentence. © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  7. Examples of Synonym Clues • Example: The main character in the novel was an amalgam, or combination, of several people the author had met during the year. • Example: Betsy took a break from teaching to serve in the Peace Core. Despite the hiatus, Betsy’s school was delighted to rehire her when she returned. © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  8. Example Clues • Writers often include examples to help explain a word. • Examples can be introduced with words such as: like, such as, for example, or including. © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  9. Example Clues • Example:Newsmagazines , like Time or Newsweek, are more detailed than newspapers. • Example: In the past month, we have had almost every type of precipitation, including rain, snow, sleet, and hail. © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  10. Contrast Clues • You can determine the meaning of an unknown word from an antonym—a word or phrase that has the opposite meaning. • Examples can be introduced with words such as but, though, and whereas. © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  11. Examples of Contrast Clues • Example:Although Liz felt sad and depressed, most of the graduates were elated. • Example: My Uncle Saul is quite portly, whereas his wife is very thin. © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  12. Inference Clues • Inference is used to figure out the meaning of an unknown word by using logic and reasoning skills. © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  13. Examples of Inference Clues • Example: On hot, humid summer afternoons, I often feel languid. • Example: Bob is quite versatile: he is a good student, a top athlete, an excellent car mechanic, and a gourmet cook. © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  14. Test-Taking Tip #2: Answering Vocabulary Questions • Test writers often use context in their exams. • Read beyond the word in question to see if there is a clue to its meaning, either in the same sentence or in a later sentence. • In a multiple choice question, first try to eliminate one or more choices. Then substitute the choice(s) you are considering for the unknown word in the sentence in which it appears. Choose the choice that makes the most sense. © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  15. Test-Taking Tip #2: Answering Vocabulary Questions • Example: After the shopper succumbed to the temptation of buying an expensive new dress, she was filled with regret. Succumbed means: • A. Gave in • B. Resisted • C. Alerted • D. Ridiculed © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.

  16. Visit the Companion Website http://www.ablongman.com/mcwhorter © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman Publishers.