Understanding New Words narcissistic • A narcissistic person is one who has too great love for his or her own abilities or physical appearance. • She is so narcissistic that she remains single. • He went to the gym every day, driven purely by narcissism.
Understanding New Words dread (v. n. a.) dreaded dreadful • I'm dreading Christmas this year. • I'm dreading going back to work. • Tim dreaded his parents finding out. • I'm dreading that I'll be asked to make a speech. • He dreaded the prospect / thought of being all alone in that house. • I dread to think what will happen if they get elected.
Understanding New Words • She thought with dread of the cold winters to come. • a more effective national policy to combat this dread disease (LITERARY) = dreaded • They told us the dreadful news. (awful, appalling) • We’ve made a dreadful mistake. (= terrible; emphasize the degree or extent of something bad) • He looks dreadfully ill.
Word Formation adj. + ly adv. • converse, conversely 相反地 • invariable, invariably 不变地 • previous, previously 以前地，事先 • graphic, graphically 形象地，生动地，逼真地 • approximate, approximately 大约，几乎 • distinct, distinctly 清晰地
graphically • graphically: in a graphic manner; by means of a graph; clearly and with details • She described the events so graphically that I could almost see them. • It is easier to represent these statistics graphically than to describe them in words.
graphic, graphical, striking • Graphical is not a common word and is only used to describe information displayed in the form of a graph. To describe a very detailed and realistic image use graphic. To describe someone or something that is very impressive or unusual to look at use striking. • The film contains one very graphic scene of horrifying violence. • The huge white tower on the waterfront is very striking. • The huge white tower on the waterfront is very graphical. ()
Word Formation • -ous: causing or having • ridiculous, dangerous, spacious, … • -ing: • disillusioning, interesting, fascinating, … • -ed: • handicapped, disabled, dreaded, …
Word Formation -ion, -tion, -ation, -sion: the act, state, or result of • misconceive misconception • qualify qualification • identify identification • frustrate frustration • regulate regulation • dispose, disposition • exclude, exclusion
misconceive, misconception • The housing needs of our inner cities have been misconceived from the start. 我们旧城区的住房需求一开始就受到误解。 • dispel misconceptions 消除误解 • It is a popular misconception (= Many people wrongly believe) that all Scotsmen are mean. 很多人误以为苏格兰人都很小气。
qualify, qualification • Membership qualifies you for a discount on purchases. • She gained a qualification in marketing.
identify, identification • Scientists have identified the gene that causes abnormal growth. (= recognize, discover) • the identification of children who need professional help
frustrate, frustration • Mary was frustrated by the lack of appreciation shown of her work. • People often feel a sense of frustration that they are not being promoted quickly enough.
regulate, regulation • The activities of credit companies are regulated by law. 信贷公司的业务受法律制约。 • Some in the market now want government regulation in order to reduce costs. • rules and regulations laid down for your guidance 为指导工作而制定的规章制度 • fire, flood regulations防火﹑ 防洪条例 • safety regulations安全规则 traffic regulations交通规则 • contrary to/against (the) regulations违章
dispose, disposition • He was forced to dispose of (= sell) his art treasures. 他被迫处理（卖）掉了自己的艺术珍藏。 • You did us a great favor by disposing of that problem.（= resolve） • The safe disposal of nuclear waste is a major problem. 安全处置核废料是个大问题。 • Students have a well-stocked library at their disposal. 学生有个藏书丰富的图书馆, 非常方便。 • The firm put a secretary at my disposal. 公司给我配备了一名秘书。
disposition • The film is not suitable for people of a nervous disposition.（temperament） • A solicitor advised him as to the disposition of the money. (the way in which sth. is dealt with) • Neither side shows the slightest disposition to compromise.(inclination)
exclude, exclusion • Her exclusion from the engineering project was a heavy blow to her. • Diane had dedicated her life to caring for him to the exclusion of all else. • He spent his spare time gardening, to the exclusion of all other interests. 他把空余时间都用在园艺上了, 没有任何其他爱好.
exclude, exclusive • Women are still excluded from this club. • We can’t exclude the possibility that he is dead. • The aircraft carries 461 people excluding the crew and cabin staff. (≠ including) • Some people think that uncontrolled economic growth and environmental stability are mutually exclusive. (not possible at the same time) • Is the total exclusive of service charges? (not including) • The room is for the exclusive use of guests. (limited to only one person or group of people)
Word Formation • dis-: showing an opposite or negative • disillusion, dislocation (脱臼，混乱), disorientation (使…迷失方向), displacement (撤换，顶替) • mis-: bad or badly, wrong or wrongly • misconception, mistrust, miscalculation, misfortune
Language Studies • Someone who is handicapped has a physical or mental disability that prevents them living a totally normal life. Many people who have a disability find this word offensive. • I'm going to work two days a week teaching handicapped kids to fish. • measures to prevent discrimination against the handicapped • Needy and handicapped people depend on government relief for their support.穷人和残疾人依靠政府的救济维持生计。
handicapped • In June, 82 visually-impaired, 845 hearing-impaired, 158 physically handicapped and 336 mentallyhandicapped students were integrated into normal schools, with the help of support services from the Education Department. • 六月，有82名视觉受损、845名听觉受损、158名身体缺陷及336名智力缺陷的学童，获得教育署的支援服务，入读普通学校。
disabled • If you are elderly or physically disabled, massage can be beneficial. • teachers who work with learning disabled children (=children who have problems learning) • disabled parking/toilet/access (=for physically disabled people)
assume vs. suppose If you assume that something is true, you imagine that it is true, sometimes wrongly. • It is a misconception to assume that the two continents are similar. • We must assume him to be innocent until he is proved guilty. 尚未证实他有罪, 就得假定他是清白的.
suppose • You can use suppose or supposing before mentioning a possible situation or action. You usually then go on to consider the effects that this situation or action might have. • Suppose someone gave you an egg and asked you to describe exactly what was inside. • Supposing he's right and I do die tomorrow? Maybe I should take out an extra insurance policy.
suppose • If you supposethat something is true, you believe that it is probably true, because of other things that you know. • The policy is perfectly clear and I see no reason to suppose that it isn't working. • It had been supposed that by then Peter would be married.
detach vs. separate • detach (≠attach) • separate (= sort out, take apart, ≠ join) • Please detach and fill out the application form. • Doctors have to detach themselves from their feelings. 冷静，不动感情 • separate the sheep from the goats: distinguish good people from bad people 把好人同坏人分开 • separate the wheat from the chaff: distinguish valuable people or things from worthless ones • We have to sift through the application forms very carefully to separate the wheat from the chaff. 我们得把申请书仔细筛选一下以甄别优劣.
inform • I wasn't informed of the decision until too late. • Please inform us of any change of address as soon as possible. • Keep me informed (of/about what happens). 有事随时通知我. • I informed him that I would not be able to attend the meeting. • Could you please inform me how to go about contacting a lawyer?
Come upon • I came upon an irresistible item at a yard sale.= come across • I came upon an old friend of mine while I was attending a symposium in Beijing. • Dr. Macphail quickly effaced from his lips the smile which had comeupon them. 麦克费尔医生赶快收回了嘴角上露出的微笑。
drive … home • drive sth. home (to): make sth. unmistakably clear to • The accident at the factory really drove home to us the point that safety regulations must be observed. • The point is driven home to us that we must read and recite some excellent essays if we want to speak, write, and translate well.
Granted that … • granted that: (in an argument) even though; even supposing that • Granted that he should send money to help with the bills, it doesn't mean that he will. • Granted that I have become an outstanding professor, I will continue to work as hard as ever and strive to win still greater success.
Paraphrase • To date it has not been narcissistic. Up to now I haven’t been able to admire my own appearance because I can’t see. • People will converse with me at the top of their lungs. People will talk to me at the top of their voices.
Paraphrase • This point was graphically driven home to me while we were in England. I was made to see this point very clearly during my stay in England. / The point was made unmistakably clear to me during my stay in England. • My saint-like disposition deserted me. My agreeable personality disappeared. / My usual kindness and patience disappeared. / My good temperament left me completely. / My good patience was being exhausted.
Paraphrase • By and large, the business company’s response to offering employment to the disabled has been enthusiastic. In general, the situation on the employment given to the disabled by the business community has been improving.
Read to Think (I) • Read to understand the contents of the text. • What kind of image does the author, a man born blind, have of himself? • Why is the word “blind” not used by the ticket agent according to the author? • What happened to the author when he was studying for a diploma-in-law degree at Oxford University?
Read to Think (I) 4. Why did the author feel annoyed after the procedure at the door of the X-ray room continued for five minutes? 5. What does the author think is the toughest misconception of all in terms of the disabled? 6. Why in your opinion does the author cite the example of a plant manager in the last paragraph? 7. What is the author’s general attitude towards the issue of the disabled discussed in the article?
Read to Think (II) • Read to understand the organization of the text. • How many parts can the text be divided into? part I (para. 1), part II (para.2-14), Part III (para. 15-17) • In the second part, the author relates his unpleasant experiences as a blind man. What are these experiences and how are they arranged? • The unpleasant experiences include the way he was treated at the airport, in the hospital, and when he applied for a job. • They are arranged in the ascending order of annoyance.
Read to Think (II) • What does the author do in the third part? • The author expresses his hope for a less-biased view and treatment of the disabled.
Read to Speak • Guided speaking • Retell the writer’s unpleasant personal experiences in the first person, using the words and phrases you have learned from the text.
Read to Speak Free speaking • Pair work • Based on the information given, discuss with your partner on how Helen Keller and/or Zhang Haidi have/has influenced you greatly. • Group work • What do you think we could do to help the disabled? Do you think we may well let the disabled depend on themselves with regard to their self-esteem, or vice versa?
Helen Keller • Helen Keller was less than two years old when she came down with a fever. It struck dramatically and left her unconscious. The fever went just as suddenly. But she was blinded and, very soon after, deaf. As she grew up, she managed to learn to do tiny errands, but she also realized that she was missing something. "Sometimes," she later wrote, "I stood between two persons who were conversing and touched their lips. I could not understand, and was vexed. I moved my lips and gesticulated frantically without result. This made me so angry at times that I kicked and screamed until I was exhausted." She was a wild child. That's Helen Keller, a greatest writer in the world.
Idea Input：张海迪 • 张海迪，1955年秋天在济南出生。５岁患脊髓病，胸以下全部瘫痪。从那时起，张海迪开始了她独到的人生。她无法上学，便在在家自学完中学课程。15岁时，海迪跟随父母，下放（山东）聊城农村，给孩子当起教书先生。她还自学针灸医术，为乡亲们无偿治疗。后来，张海迪自学多门外语，还当过无线电修理工。
Idea Input: 张海迪 • 在残酷的命运挑战面前，张海迪没有沮丧和沉沦，她以顽强的毅力和恒心与疾病做斗争，经受了严峻的考验，对人生充满了信心。她虽然没有机会走进校门，却发愤学习，学完了小学、中学全部课程，自学了大学英语、日语、德语和世界语，并攻读了大学和硕士研究生的课程。1983年张海迪开始从事文学创作，先后翻译了《海边诊所》等数十万字的英语小说，编著了《向天空敞开的窗口》、《生命的追问》、《轮椅上的梦》等书籍。其中《轮椅上的梦》在日本和韩国出版，而《生命的追问》出版不到半年，已重印3次，获得了全国“五个一工程”图书奖。在《生命的追问》之前，这个奖项还从没颁发给散文作品。最近，一部长达30万字的长篇小说《绝顶》，即将问世。从1983年开始，张海迪创作和翻译的作品超过100万字。
Idea Input: International Day of Disabled Persons December 3 is the International Disability Day. We celebrate International Disability Day every year to promote understanding of disability issues and mobilise support for the full integration of persons with disabilities into society. Nationally, there are different themes for this day. Some countries choose to focus on accessibility to the physical environment or to information and communications technology, while others highlight education or employment issues and some will discuss human rights or promote the new United Nations convention on the rights of persons with disabilities.
Read to Write (I) • Guided writing • Ex. II, III, IV on page 209 • Sentence pattern modeling • Free writing
Sentence Pattern Modeling • Find at least two sentence patterns in the text which impress you and then for each sentence pattern, write at least three sentences. Exchange with your desk mate the sentence patterns you have chosen and the sentences you have modeled to see what other sentence patterns are worth noticing and what you can learn from each other.
Free Writing • Some people think that the handicapped students should study in special schools, while others think that they should go to ordinary schools. What is your opinion? Give at least three reasons to support your point of view.
Read to Translate Translate the following sentences from the text in English. • Very often people will converse with me at the top of their lungs, enunciating each word very carefully. 人们常常会扯着嗓子和我说话，并且刻意把每个字都咬得清清楚楚。 • This point was graphically driven home to me while we were in England. 让我对这一点彻底了解的是我在英国的那段日子。
Read to Translate • This procedure continued for approximately five minutes at which point even my saint-like disposition deserted me. 这一程序持续了近五分钟，直到我再也无法保持我的绅士风度。 • Fortunately, this view of limitation and exclusion is beginning to change. 幸运的是，这种限制和排斥盲人的观点开始有了变化。 • By and large, the business community’s response to offering employment to the disabled has been enthusiastic. 总的说来，商业社团对于为残疾人提供就业机会的反应一直是积极的。