reproduction in angiosperms n.
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Reproduction in Angiosperms . IB Topic 9.3.1-9.3.3. Reproduction in flowering plants . Flowering plants contain their reproductive organs in the flower Flowers are often hermaphrodite structures  both male and female parts . Draw and Label … .

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reproduction in angiosperms

Reproduction in Angiosperms

IB Topic 9.3.1-9.3.3

reproduction in flowering plants
Reproduction in flowering plants
  • Flowering plants contain their reproductive organs in the flower
  • Flowers are often hermaphrodite structures  both male and female parts
draw and label
Draw and Label …
  • A diagram showing the structure of a dicotyledonous animal pollinated flower
  • Sepal, petal, anther, filament, stigma, and ovary
  • See Figure 10.27 (Clegg)
parts of the flower
Parts of the flower
  • Sepals:
    • Collectively called the calyx
    • Enclose the flower in the bud and are usually small, green, and leaf like
  • Petals:
    • Collectively called the corolla
    • Often colored and conspicuous (may attract insects and other animals)
  • Stamens:
    • The male part of the flower
    • Consist of anthers (housing pollen grains) and the filament (stalk)
  • Carpels:
    • The female part of the flower
    • There may be one or many & they may be fused together or free standing
    • Each carpel consists of an ovary and a stigma (which receives pollen)
addressing some vocabulary
Addressing some vocabulary …
  • Pollination: is the transfer of pollen from a mature anther to a receptive stigma
    • The pollen may come from the anthers of the same flower or flowers of the same plant
      • Self pollination
    • Or, the pollen may come from flowers on a different plant of the same species
      • Cross pollination
so how is that pollen transferred
So, how is that pollen transferred?
  • Typically by insects and wind
    • Insect pollinated plants typically produce nectar which attracts insects to the flower
  • Although in some species, pollen can be transferred by:
    • Birds
    • Bats
    • Running water
what comes after pollen transfer
What comes after pollen transfer … ?
    • Can only occur after pollen has landed on the stigma and has germinated there
    • Fertilization is the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote
what s double fertilization
What’s double fertilization?
  • The pollen grain produces a pollen tube, which grows down between the cells of the style and into the ovule
  • The pollen tube delivers two male nuclei
    • One fuses with the egg
    • The other fuses with another nucleus  triggers the formation of the food store for the developing embryo
how are seeds formed and dispersed
How are seeds formed and dispersed?
  • Seeds develop from the fertilized ovule
  • After fertilization:
    • The zygote grows by mitotic division (embryonic root, stem, and cotyledon)
    • As the seed matures, the outer layers become the protective seed coat (testa) and the whole ovary develops into the fruit.
    • The water content of the seed decreases
    • The seed moves into a dormancy period
the seed
The Seed
  • The seed is a form in which the flowering plant may be dispersed
  • Seed dispersal is the carrying of the seed away from the vicinity of the parenting plant
  • Wind, animals, water, and explosive mechanisms help disperse seeds