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Homework. Chapter 14: HW 22, 24, 27, 28, 29, 31, 34,36,45,58, 59 a, b, c. Chapter 14 Switching. Circuit Switching Packet Switching Virtual circuit packet switching Datagram packet switching Message Switching. Switch.

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homework
Homework
  • Chapter 14:
    • HW 22, 24, 27, 28, 29, 31, 34,36,45,58, 59 a, b, c
chapter 14 switching
Chapter 14Switching
  • Circuit Switching
  • Packet Switching
    • Virtual circuit packet switching
    • Datagram packet switching
  • Message Switching
switch
Switch
  • A hardware/software device capable of providing temporary connection among devices linked to the switch.
slide6
VC approach

Datagram approach

Switched VC

Permanent VC

slide7
Circuit-Switched Network

For mesh connection: No. of connections= n/2(n-1)=21

For point-to-point connection: No. of connections= n*m=12

Four switches are used to connect computers on the left to

Computers on the right

circuit switching networks
CircuitSwitching Networks
  • Dedicated circuit must be established first.
  • Data is transferred.
  • Data is transferred in bit streams.
  • Circuit is terminated
  • Example: (Public Switched Telephone Network, PSTN)
circuit switching networks1
CircuitSwitching Networks
  • Suitable for voice transmission.
  • Two devices must have the same data transmission rate.
  • Inflexible (once circuit is established, all data must follow the same path regardless of network conditions)
  • Not suitable for bursty traffic.
  • Circuits can be blocked.
  • You are charged for the circuit time.
  • The use of bandwidth may not be efficient.
circuit switching technologies
CircuitSwitching Technologies
  • Space-divisions switching
    • Crossbar switches
    • Multistage switches
  • Time-divisions switching
advantages of crossbar switch
Advantages of Crossbar Switch
  • Calls can not be blocked
  • Connection is instantaneous
  • Suitable for small number of inputs/outputs.
disadvantages of crossbar switch
Disadvantages of Crossbar Switch
  • The number of cross-points increases by approximately the square of the input/output devices.
  • Impractical for large number of inputs/outputs.
  • Inefficient use of the available circuits
slide14
Multistage Switch

1

1

2

5

6

10

11

15

No. of crosspoints=3x(5x2)2*2x(3x3)+3x(2x5)=78

Single stage 15x15=225

time division switches
Time-Division Switches
  • TDM is used to achieve switching.
    • Two TDM methods used are:
      • Time-slot interchange
      • TDM bus
        • Synchronous
        • Asynchronous
advantage and disadvantage of time division switching
Advantage and Disadvantage of Time-Division Switching
  • Advantage:
    • It does not need crosspoints.
  • Disadvantages:
    • Processing time (data must be stored in RAM, retrieved, and processed)
tdm bus
TDM Bus
  • I/O lines connected to high speed bus through I/O gates.
  • I/O lines are assigned time slot.
  • Devices can transmit during their assigned time slot.
  • One input gate is closed and only one output gate is closed during each time slot.
circuit switching
Circuit Switching
  • Total transmission time
    • Call setup time
    • Signal propagation time
    • Data transmission time
      • ttot=ts+t prop.+ttrans.
circuit switching example
Circuit Switching (example)
  • The speed of propagation on a TDM bus is 0.8c, its length is 1 m, and the data rate is 500 Mbps. Calculate the total time to transmit 10 Mbytes of data.
      • ttot=ts+t prop.+ttrans.
circuit switching networks review
Circuit Switching Networks (review)
  • Suitable for voice transmission.
  • Two devices must have the same data transmission rate.(constant rate)
  • Not suitable for bursty traffic.
  • Inflexible (once circuit is established, all data must follow the same path regardless of network conditions)
  • Circuits can be blocked.
  • You are charged for the circuit time.
  • The use of bandwidth may not be efficient.
slide27
Packet Switching

Datagram approach

VC approach

Switched VC

Permanent VC

packet switching networks
Packet Switching Networks
  • Suitable for audio, video, data transmission.
  • Two devices with different transmission speeds can exchange data. (variable data rate)
  • Priorities can be assigned.
  • Suitable for bursty traffic.
  • Circuits can not be blocked.
virtual circuit packet switching networks
Virtual Circuit Packet SwitchingNetworks
  • Total transmission time
    • Call setup time for VC
    • Signal propagation time
    • Packets transmission time
      • ttot=ts+t prop.+ttrans.
datagram packet switching networks
Datagram Packet SwitchingNetworks
  • Total transmission time
    • Signal propagation time
    • Packets transmission time
      • ttot=t prop.+ttrans.
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