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Equal Access for Education, Training and S&T: Pathway to Decent Work for Women Study on Mainstreaming Gender in STI in East African Community”, Dr. Rose Ogwang Odhiambo Institute of Women, Gender and Development Studies(IWGDS), Egerton University, Kenya
Overall Objective • The overall goal is the integration of gender considerations in all aspects of science, technology and innovation activities and programme research, design, implementation and monitoring in East Africa Community.
The Specific Objectives • Explicitly explain the objectives of gender empowerment and recognition in STI policy and programmes; • Provide an overview of the status of gender mainstreaming in STI in East Africa Community(ECA); • Disaggregate gender indicators and research in gender mainstreaming in ECA; • Identify and share effective gender mainstreaming strategies and measures in STI policies, programmes, projects and structures in member states of the EAC; • Develop effective Gender Mainstreaming Action Plan (GMAP) for EAC.
Methodology • A gender analytical framework was used to examines gender equity perceptions, policy and practice as well as structures inside countries • The idea was to question the legitimacy of women’s marginalization in the management of society’s activities and to establish the efficacy of the legislative and policy changes in empowering women.
Methodology Cont’d • The following methods were used to carry out the study: • Literature review of materials • Structured discussions and in-depth interviews with key informants • General Group discussions
EAST AFRICAN WOMEN AND GIRLS DATA ON EDUCATION 2011 • % Literate Ages 15 – 24 , 2005/2008 • Primary School Completion Rate, 2005/2010 • % Enrolled in Secondary School, 2005/2010 • MDG Female Secondary School Enrollment as % of Male Enrollment
S T & I Status in Each Country within EAC • UGANDA There is increased proportion of women in decision making which is evidenced by increased number of women parliamentarians and other women members who hold senior positions at the national, regional and International levels. In the 8th Parliament, Five women members of parliament head parliamentary committees while 9 are deputies
UGANDA: S T & I • The ICT policy, Science and technology policy have been formulated and currently being implemented. • Out of 890 researchers in the country women constitute 41% share of female researchers in the STI and research development. Out of 470 researchers in the public sector, women constitute 41% share.
UGANDA: Women in S T & I Source: UNECA REPORT, 2010
Uganda’s Gender Mainstreaming Governance Uganda has modernized: • the agricultural sector • the health sector and • the road sector departments. • Further they have reviewed their national situations and identified the gaps on Gender Mainstreaming in STI. • Government related institutions have taken the lead in developing strategies on how to bridge the gender gaps in STI.
Challenges in Uganda • Capacity building: lack of training in gender mainstreaming in Science, Technology and Innovation • Sex-disaggregated data base: lack of established M and E mechanisms. • Gender mainstreaming governance :The science and technology fraternity is still lobbying for the increase of government funds allocation to 1%; currently it is about 0.6%. • Gender Mainstreaming Communication: There is also a general lack of awareness on the significance of science for development and role of women. • There is a lack of women NGOs to support and fight for women scientists to enable them communicate scientific and technological information and take part in drawing the attention of people to appreciate their potential roles that scientific and technological community including what women can play in development.
Challenges in Uganda Continued • Socio-cultural factors: There is a bias among female students for humanities when pre-selecting subjects at the expense of ST subjects. • Further the curricula and text books do not relate science to everyday experiences of women and men alike and do not pay due recognition to contribution of women scientists. • Marginalization in research: The country is also making attempts to bring into light the research done by women scholars who are usually marginalized by universities and research institutions.
Challenges in Uganda continued • Other obstacles include: • High rate of school drop outs which are mainly attributed to early teenage pregnancies and early marriages. • Stereotypic ideologies which depict boys as being better at science subjects • Family customary structures particularly in the rural areas which encourage girls to consider marriage as an alternative to education • Sexual harassment which is prevalent in the form of defilement and rape • Inadequate moral guidance and counseling pertaining to reforming the young women’s attitudes in respect to core values and regional imbalances as most educational facilities cater for the urban populace.
2. TANZANIA • Tanzania has several organs that address women and gender Issues, including: • Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children • Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology • NGOs such as Tanzania Gender Networking Programme (TGNP), Tanzania Association of Women Leaders in Agriculture and Environment (TAWLAE), Tanzania Women Miners Association (TAWOMA), Tanzania Media Women Association (TAMWA), Women Development For Science and Technology Association (WODSTA) and Women's Research and Documentation Project Association (WRDP).
Tanzania Enabling Environment • Strong gender training institute at the University of Dar-Es-Salaam. • Has adopted a policy on STI based on the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty. • Although the female staff teaching and students taking Science based subjects still low
Tanzania: Science &Technology Faculty Academic Staff Percentage by Gender (SUA)
Challenges to Tanzania • Gender mainstreaming governance: Tanzania is currently working on its national science technology and innovation policy which is currently under review. • At the institutional level, policy frameworks are still non-existent or very weak. • Sex-disaggregated data collection and analysis: The government of Tanzania conducts gender and data analysis in researches that have already been done but not when reviewing research proposals for funds. • Adequate data on how many men and women are employed within the science and technology sectors in the country does not exist
Threats to AA in Tanzania • Affirmative Action: Women academic progression is controlled by their husbands. • For example there is a woman who was enrolled for her PhD in one department while the husband was in another department studying for his PhD. The husband told the wife that if she graduated with her PhD before he did then that would be the end of their marriage. the woman is thus forced to wait 8 years for her husband to graduate before she could. • Besides if a woman is studying engineering and technology and their husbands decide that they do not want them to pursue that career path anymore then that becomes the end of their careers as scientists and they have to transfer to other disciplines.
3: RWANDA • Has made a good progress in gender mainstreaming in all spheres and with regards to STI • There is an improved participation in governance process both at the national and local levels with 35% representation at Senate level, 56.25% at parliamentarians level, 38% women Ministers and 40% women State Ministers. • In the Office of the Prosecutor General women represent 20% and 32% in the positions of Judicial Police at Higher Courts and Judicial Police at Lower Courts. • At decentralized level, women Executive Secretaries of Districts represent 17% while women Executive Secretaries of Sectors represent 13%.
Rwanda’s Gender Policy • The gender policy has been operational since the year 2004 • The Vision 2020 that has been operational since 2000 has strong gender points • The Budget Call Circular (BCC) has been developed and is engendered with the aim of issuing the national gender budget statement for the 2011-2012 financial year. • There is strong commitment to CEDAW with regard to its domestication including the commitment to the MDGs.
Rwanda’s Gender Policy Continuation • Strengthened legal frameworks are in place in the areas of National Constitution, Land Law, Succession Law, Nationality Law, GBV Law, Electoral Law, and Labor Law. • Developed policies include mainly the Vision 2020, Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS), National Gender Policy, Decentralization policy, Girl’s Education Policy, and Labor Policy which all take into account gender considerations.
Rwanda: ST&I • STI policy integrates science, technology, scientific research and innovation in a framework that include capability building, technical transfer initiatives, and the promotion of innovation in the context of the issues facing Rwanda • act to catalyze all public and private sector activities to enable Rwanda’s vision 2020 to be realized
Rwanda: ST&I Continuation • The policy has guided values and access for all, provision of quality education and training services, and strengthened equity in terms of geographical location and other ways. • promoted, supported Science, Technology and Research development taking into consideration the present gender imbalances.
Rwanda’s Infrastructure Development • Role Modeling: They have role models programs and mentorship at community level. They organize associations for women professionals in science and technology to visit schools as role models. • Legal sanctions: Rwanda offers 9 years of basic education (6-3-3-4) and taking the children out of school before the nine years are complete attracts a penalty under the law. The students learn French, English and Kinyarwanda. • Scholarship Award system: Rwanda is currently revisiting and providing conducive environment for women who still give birth to avoid interfering with their performance and advancement. According to one of the female mathematics professors at Butare University, there was great disparity in lecturers with PhDs. • School Curriculum:The universities have academic quality assurance handbook which offer guidance on ‘equality and diversity policy’. All lectures must read it as part of their orientation before they commence lectures. It gives them idea on how to teach and cultivate a culture of non discrimination etc.
Rwanda’s Infrastructure Development • Research and networking: Butare University provides research grants of upto 15% on gender and women Studies and conduct continuous research on emerging issues in STI. • Innovation :There is a small loan given to rural people’s bank and they work in collaboration with KIST. Two female lecturers who are in charge of gender mainstreaming in science and technology, says that each family is given a cow. • Awards to best performing students: Rwanda’s first lady awards scholarships to three top marks girls in science and technology even at secondary school. They also have a project for one laptop per child
Rwanda Best Practices • Capacity building for promotion of gender mainstreaming: Efforts in the area of capacity building in gender mainstreaming have been made through capacity building programs under the Ministry in Charge of Gender and Family Promotion. • Development of gender sensitive indicators: Gender sensitive indicators are designed and disseminated by the Gender Monitoring Office (GMO) in close collaboration with the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR) and the Ministry of Finance and Economic planning (MINECOFIN) to relevant implementers ensure a gender sensitive monitoring and evaluation process. • Established monitoring mechanisms: Gender Monitoring Office has been established as a national mechanism to ensure effective implementation of the National Gender Policy.
Rwanda Best Practices • Gender responsive budgeting: is to help all ministries mainstream gender issues, through budget planning and implementation. • Gender mainstreaming governance: Rwanda has a strong Gender Policy since 2004, however it is currently being revised. All ministries integrate gender into their policies and programme. There is adequate Sex-disaggregation of data on Men and Women in Decision Making/Public Organs/ Positions
Rwanda Best Practices • Zero Tolerance on Corruption and Gender based Violence: The rule of law and zero tolerance on corruption is a culture. Gender Based Violence is not tolerated which creates conducive environment for learning.
Challenges in Rwanda • Socio-Cultural Practices. At private universities such as Kigali Independent University (ULK), young women of college age have taken non-strenuous subjects because they want to finish early and marry thus majority take liberal sciences. KIST is mostly science oriented thus there are few women. This has prompted affirmative action for women who missed the cut off who are then given 75% scholarship by the government so they can pursue science and science related subjects. • Girls drop out due to pregnancy. Majority of girls who come to university get pregnant and they do not further their education after that. • Education. Programs such as women, technology and community has not been sustained for lack of support. Currently Association of women engineers contributes money to sponsor children. The association faces constraints since they want to map women engineers to determine their positions in their workplaces but this has not been done yet.
4. KENYA • Attempts to mainstream gender has not been successful despite being started in the late 90s • The national gender policy exist but its implementation still poses a challenge to the national development • The passing of new constitution in 2010 has however made a marked difference for women in Kenya.
Kenya’s Major Achievements • Sexual offences Act 2006 • Women Enterprises fund • Development of Lands Policy • Political Parties reforms is gradually taking shape • Existence of women’s network e.g. G10 group that lobby for women’s issues
Kenya’s Achievements Continued • Institutions for advancing women's issues, Ministry of Gender and the Gender Commission in place • Gender desks created in all the ministries to help in mainstreaming gender.
Kenya Achievement: Science & Technology • The Government has also put in various mechanisms to improve agricultural productivity in rural areas in order to facilitate food security in the country, e.g. Agriculture Sector Coordinating Unit (ASCU), the National Agriculture Sector Extension Policy (NASEP), the Support for Rural Communities and Poverty Eradication and Food Security Initiatives and National Accelerated Agriculture Inputs Access (NAAIA)
Kenya: Science & Technology Institutions • Universities and Science and Technology colleges exist. • Admission to these institutions still favour male students. • Lecturers teaching Science based disciplines are very few.
Kenya’s Best Practices • The government has taken the initiative to provide grants for construction of laboratories and supply equipment to girl schools to address the cultural perception and stereotyped thinking by stakeholders that science subjects are a preserve of the male gender. • There has been a slight increase in the number of Kenyan women ambassadors and high commissioners who represent the government in foreign missions abroad.
Challenges in Kenya • Inadequate Sex-disaggregated data at Kenyan Universities and institutions teaching Science and technology • Lack of role modeling for girls • Gender based subject stereotypes in pre-secondary.
5. BURUNDI • Inadequate commitments has been seen through Ministry for National Solidarity, Repatriation, National Reconstruction, Human Rights and Gender, to facilitate the translation of legal frameworks into actions. • Other mechanisms are provided in the Constitution exist but remains limited at around 1% of the national budget for the entire Ministry in charge of gender, namely; • the National Gender Council, • the Technical Committee of the National Gender Council and • the Executive Permanent Secretariat of the National Gender Council • The establishment of Gender Focal Points in most ministries.
Burundi ST&I policy • The national gender policy, though not very explicit STI is aimed at promoting gender parity especially in terms of its integration into the country’s policies and programs. • In primary and secondary education, there is under-representation of girls. This applies to college and universities.
Research and Documentation in Burundi • Burundi encourages engendered research with coordination of ISTEEBU.
Burundi’s Best Practices • School has significantly increased the numbers of girls in primary schools • Free primary education and construction of Communal Colleges have had a very positive impact on girls’ education • A girl’s orientation program was put in place by the Ministry of Education, which contributes to the increase of the numbers of females, especially in courses traditionally reserved for males • The training of traditional birth attendants by the Ministry of Health and providing maternity related services free of charge contributed to the increase of delivery rates in an assisted environment. • The women’s participation in decision-making in the National Assembly and Senate (30%) contributed to the awareness of women about their role in Burundian leadership • The girl with an undesired pregnancy may go back to school after the baby’s weaning. That contributes to increasing the proportion of females in both primary and secondary education
Challenges in Burundi • The entry of women in the Ubushingantahe institution traditionally reserved for men. The Ubushingantahe institution used to play a very significant role in conflict resolution. • The establishment of a Unit in charge of female education within the Ministry of Education has much contributed to reducing gender-related disparities in primary education. • The food distribution by WFP to families who send their girls children to
Challenges in Burundi • The lack of understanding of gender for policy makers remains a problem. • the implementation of the action plan for implementing the Beijing Platform for Action is hindered by problems that prevent it from becoming an efficient tool for the promotion of gender equality • the lack of means for operation of the Committee of Beijing Follow-up, as well as the political context that does not make it a priority
Status of gender equality in staff numbers in selected HEI in IUCEA Source: Extracted from IUCEA 2009 Year Book and Facts and Figures of NUR
Comparing the Performance of the EAC Countries in Gender Mainstreaming
Comparing the Performance of the EAC Countries in Gender Mainstreaming