CHAPTER 2 Physiology of the female genital system. Sec.1 physiologic characteristics in different stages Sec.2 menstruation and its manifestation Sec.3 ovarian cycle Sec.4 cyclical changes of endometrium and other genital organs Sec.5 endocrine mechanism Sec.6 other glands of endocrine sys.
sex-hormone secretion;periodic ovulation
（五）climacteric period：45y→52y, oligomenorrhea→menopause
Def：interval from the decline of ovarian function and the atrophy of genital organs to the cease of genital function .
（六）senility：the further decline of ovarian function .
manifestation：cholesterol↑，muscular atrophy，decalcification，concentric deposit of fat.
3．corpus luteum：ovulation→corpus rubrum→mature corpus luteum（granulosa-corpus luteum cells，theca-corpus luteum cells）
4.decline of corpus luteum：12-16d→8-10w→corpus albicans
(三)sex hormone:estrogen is produced by theca folliculi cells and granulosa cells before ovulation;estrogen and progesterone is produced by corpus luteum.
1.physiologic action of estrogen.
(1)the second sexuality’s appearance.
hypertrophy of uterus,fallopian tubes and lower genital tract at puberty;hypertrophy and increased vascularity in pregnancy.
Controlling the monthly proliferative phases of the endometrium.
Sensitizing uterus to the action of oxytocin.
Causing vaginal epithelium to proliferate with a increase in thickness of the superficial stratified layers and a increase in their glycogen content.
Cervical orifice is loosened and cervical glands secrete an abundance of mucus.
sodium and water retention;cholesterol decrease.
(6)action on the bone:Ca2+-deposit on the bones
2.physiologic action of progesterone
(1)action on the internal genital organs
inhibiting the sensitivity of uterus;
leading to the secretary phase of endometrium;
cervical orifice closed;
inhibiting the motility of the tubes;
causing the desquamation of vaginal epithelium.
(2)action on breasts
causing the development of the acinus
(4)action of temperature-rising on Hypothalamus
(5)Action on metabolism
causing Na+ and water excreted
3.menstrual phase:toward the end of the cycle ,E2 and P ↓→rapid decrease in the thickness of endometrium due to a diminished blood-supply,in the ischaemic functional zone metabolites↑and cause the coiled vessels in functional layer to contract →bleeding through their necrotic walls with desquamation following the necrosis of the functional layer →an
(二)cyclical changes of other sites of genital tract.
(1)before ovulation:estrogen↑→hypertrophy of basal cells and thickness of epithelium↑
(2)after ovulation: progesterone↑ →desquamation of epithelial cells.
(1)before ovulation:estrogen↑→amount↑,thin and translucent,liable to wiredrawing,fern-like crystals in mucous smear.
Sec.5 the H-P-O axis in the menstrual cycle