Latin ii regular dependent uses of the subjunctive
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Latin II Regular DEPENDENT USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. Chapters 43 – 54. How to distinguish types. Main clause (indicative): Look at indicator (flag) words. Dependent clause (subjunctive): Look at SUBORDINATING conjunction FIRST.

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Latin ii regular dependent uses of the subjunctive

Latin II RegularDEPENDENT USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE

Chapters 43 – 54


How to distinguish types
How to distinguish types

  • Main clause (indicative): Look at indicator (flag) words.

  • Dependent clause (subjunctive):

    • Look at SUBORDINATING conjunction FIRST.

    • Distinguish among sub-types of clauses based on evidence in the main clause.


Clauses introduced by cum
Clauses introduced by “cum”

  • CUM CAUSAL: “cum” translates as “since” or “because”

  • CUM CIRCUMSTANTIAL: “cum” translates as “when” – (Choose this type LAST – AFTER you’ve determined that “since” or “because” don’t work in the sentence.)


Clauses introduced by interrogatives
Clauses introduced by Interrogatives

  • Look for “familiar” interrogatives, such as “cur” or “ubi.”

  • Remember other possible interrogatives such as “unde,” “quo,” “utrum…an” ….

    • – in other words, LOOK UP the subordinating conjunction if you’re not sure of the translation!


Clauses introduced by ut ut non or ne
Clauses introduced by “ut” “ut…non” or “ne”

  • RESULT CLAUSES

    • Main clause has a “flag” word.

      • TAM, TALIS, TANTUS, TANTUM, TOT, ADEO, SIC, ITA

      • Subordinate clause shows the RESULT of the main clause

      • Negative clauses are introduced by “ut” with “non” appearing later in the clause


Clauses introduced by ut continued
Clauses introduced by “ut” (continued)

  • INDIRECT COMMAND

    Main clause has a “flag” VERB which indicates a command, request, exhortation, etc.

    • Pi, poor him!

    • Hippo or mi!

  • Persuadeo, impero, praecipio, obsecro, oro, rogo, hortor, invito, moneo! OR

  • Hortor, impero, persuadeo, praecipio, obsecro, oro, rogo, moneo, invito


Indirect command continued
Indirect Command (continued)

  • This clause is also known as “substantive clause of purpose”

  • Positive “ut” – Negative “ne”

  • Translate “ut” as “to” Translate “ne” as “not to”

  • Translate the subjunctive verb as if it is completing the infinitive that started as “to”


Indirect command continued1
Indirect Command (continued)

Examples of indirect commands

Imperavit eis ut discederent.

“He ordered them TO LEAVE.”

Monuit Sextum ne in urbem sine custode iret.

“He warned Sextus NOT TO GO into the city without a guard.”


Purpose clauses choose these last
Purpose Clauses (Choose these LAST!)

  • If there are NONE of the “flag” words in the main clause AND

  • If the “ut” can be translated “so that” or “in order to” …

  • THEN the “ut” clause is a PURPOSE CLAUSE!!

  • Translate “ne” as “lest” (!), “so that…not” or “in order not to..”


Example of determining what type of ut clause
Example of determining what type of “ut” clause

  • Sextus adeo esuriebat ut cenare statim vellet.

    • FLAG word: adeo

    • “he wanted to dine immediately” is the result of “Sextus was so hungry..”

    • Sextus was so hungry that he wanted to dine immediately.

    • RESULT CLAUSE!


Another example of ut clause
Another example of “ut” clause

  • Cornelius Corneliae praecepit ut in atrium statim veniret.

    • FLAG VERB: praecepit

    • “ut” translates as “to” and “veniret” completes the infinitive = “to come”

    • Cornelius instructed Cornelia TO COME into the atrium immediately.

    • INDIRECT COMMAND!


Clause introduced by ne
Clause introduced by “ne”

  • Eucleides monet pueros ne ëvilla exeant.

    • FLAG VERB: monet

    • “ne” translates “not to” and “exeant” translates as “go out”

    • Eucleides warns the boys not to go out of the house.

    • INDIRECT COMMAND


One more example of ut clause
One more example of “ut” clause

  • Coquus in culinam intravit ut cenam pararet.

    • NO “FLAG” words!

    • “ut” translates “so that” or “in order to”

    • The cook went into the kitchen IN ORDER TO cook dinner. OR

    • The cook went into the kitchen SO THAT HE MIGHT (OR COULD) prepare dinner.

    • PURPOSE CLAUSE!!!


Last example thank goodness
Last example! (Thank goodness!)

  • Eucleides per vias festinavit ne a praedonibus caperentur.

  • NO FLAG WORDS!

  • Eucleides hurried through the streets LEST he be captured by robbers. (Correct…but weird!)

  • Eucleides hurried through the streets IN ORDER NOT TO be captured by robbers.

  • NEGATIVE PURPOSE CLAUSE!!


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