TE TIRITI O WAITANGI 6 February 1840. Does it Deliver for the Maori of Aotearoa – New Zealand?. Share dates, events, facts and observations Let all present this evening make up their minds about the Treaty and its aftermath in the light of these Assess pakeha justice. MY KEY WISHES.
Does it Deliver for the Maori of Aotearoa – New Zealand?
Aotearoa; Maori; iwi/hapu; Ngapuhi; rangatira; mana; tupuna; pakeha;
Tika; pono;HE KUPU – KEY WORDS
Ranginui is the Roof
The Supporting Poles are the Sacred Mountains of Ngapuhi:
Puhangatohora; Te Ramaroa; Whiria; Panguru; Papata; Maungataniwha; Tokerau; Rakaumangamanga; Manaia; Tutamoe; ManganuiTE WHARE TAPU O NGAPUHITHE SACRED HOUSE OF NGAPUHI
Ngā tuhituhinga tuatahi o te Tiriti o Waitangi ko ngā moko o ngā rangatira o Ngāpuhi!
The first signatures on the Treaty of Waitangi are the tattoos of the chiefs of Ngāpuhi!TE WHARE TAPU O NGAPUHI
Massive trade developed
Rangatira received by Governors as kings demanding respect
Missionaries arrived in Tai Tokerau – first sermon, Christmas, 1814 – Samuel MarsdenTUATAHI: THE CONTEXT
Reply from Viscount Lord Goderich, Colonial Office dated 14 June 1832. Appointment of the British Resident announced. James Busby arrived in 1833.
20 March, 1834, 25 rangatira chose the flag as the flag of the Confederation of the United Tribes of New Zealand. 21 gun salute. Gazetted in NSW 19 August 1835.Context
King William IV, through Lord Glenelg, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, accepted their request, in a manner of speaking, couched in the diplomatic language of the day.
Sir Richard Bourke, Governor of NSW (1831-37), affirmed this. Sir George Gipps (1838-46) tried to deny it as being a concoction of Busby and others.Context
Te Wakaminenga o Aotearoa – The Nation of New Zealand – existed!Context
30th day of January, 1840
My esteemed friend:
This is my word to you once more; a ship will be arriving, bringing a chief from the Queen of England to be a Governor for us all. So, it is for this reason that all the chiefs in the nation of New Zealand should assemble here on Wednesday of this holy week to meet him. Therefore my friend my reason is to invite you here to Waitangi, to my home once more, to this assembly. You too are a chief of those united as one. That is it, my word is done. Yours, from your esteemed friend, Busby.
There was no previous model anywhere: the text was written in English over 4 days (James Freeman and James Busby) and translated overnight by Rev. Henry Williams into Maori. First problem.
'I certify that the above is as literal a translation of the Treaty of Waitangi as the idiom of the language will allow.'
i.e. My command of Maori is very poor but I am doing my best!Te Tiriti o Waitangi
What was explained to rangatira and the Maori version created a different understanding: what the chiefs thought they were signing and choosing is not what they ended up with! Maori did not respect bits of paper: they respected verbal assurances as a matter of honour and mana. Kanohi ki kanohi!Te Tiriti o Waitangi
Ko nga Rangatira o te Wakaminenga me nga Rangatira katoa hoki ki hai i uru ki taua wakaminenga ka tuku rawa atu ki te Kuini o Ingarani ake tonu atu-te Kawanatanga katoa o o ratou wenua.
Article the First
The Chiefs of the Confederation of the United Tribes of New Zealand and the separate and independent Chiefs who have not become members of the Confederation cede to Her Majesty the Queen of England absolutely and without reservation all the rights and powers of Sovereignty which the said Confederation or Individual Chiefs respectively exercise or possess, or may be supposed to exercise or to possess over their respective Territories as the sole Sovereigns thereof.Te Tiriti o Waitangi
There was a powerful, general mood not to sign. There was the matter of land sales.
The great oratory of Heke, Nene and Patuone changed the mood. WHY?
It was too late! Pakeha were there to stay: goods, technology, systems, crops, agriculture = desirability.Te Tiriti o Waitangi
The chiefs adjourned to discuss the Treaty and were scheduled to return on Friday, 7th February 1840.
Impassioned discussion took place at night around the fire in the Maori way: pakeha were surprised: morning of 6 February, 1840, the chiefs indicated they were ready to sign so they could return home to more important business!Te Tiriti o Waitangi
Waitangi was the only place where any explanation was given!Te Tiriti o Waitangi
Nene said: “Pakeha are a very lying race!”
Successive NZ governments used legislation to trample Maori rights further and there were endless breaches.
The British Government totally ignored Maori concerns and grievances and has never repaired the damage.Te Tiriti o Waitangi
1844 private land sales
1846 Protectorate Department abolished
1852 Constitution Act (21 plus males with title to land)
1859 illegitimate land sales (Teira)
1863 Native Lands Act (individualised title; free sales)
1863 Suppression of Rebellion Act
1864 Native Reserves Act (settler control of reserved Maori land)Te Tiriti o Waitangi
1866 Oyster Fisheries Act (land loss)
1867 Maori Representation Act (4 MPs)
1867 Native Schools Act (assimilate)
1871 all instruction in English
1877 Judge Prendergast: Treaty a simple nullity!
1879 amendments to simplify settlers obtaining Maori land
1879 Peace Preservation Act (I year hard labour for Maori who refused orders to relocate)Te Tiriti o Waitangi
1880 West Coast Settlement Act (2 years hard labour for opposing or hindering surveys for settlement)
1881 Natives Reserves Act (control of reserves vested in the Public Trustee)
1881, 2500 troops invade Parihaka to arrest Te Whiti
1886 Native Lands Administration Act (land to trustees who could sell it)
1893 Land Purchase Act (speed up sales)Te Tiriti o Waitangi
1894 Native Land Court Act (names on title as owners)
Validation of Invalid Land Sales Act
1894 Land Settlement Act (control under land councils with no Maori members)
1897, 92 Maori arrested in Taranaki for protesting
1903, Prendergast’s 1877 ruling upheldTe Tiriti o Waitangi
1975 Waitangi Tribunal: Government not obliged to listen.
Cases for compensation are still within the consideration of the Tribunal. Few have been settled.Te Tiriti o Waitangi
In Tamaki v. Baker, the Privy Council rejected the argument that there was no Maori customary law and pointed out that many existing statutes in New Zealand specifically mention it.
RV Symonds: Chapman J – “indigenous title is entitled to be respected, that it cannot be extinguished otherwise than by the free consent of the native occupiers”.
Arani v. Public Trustee: Lord Philamore ruled that Maori Customary law enjoyed legal status in the European Courts.Te Tiriti o Waitangi
To Maori, especially Ngapuhi, the mana of our tupuna has been trampled endlessly and for this, there is a price to pay: in Maori, HE UTU.
Tragedies: visited upon many pakeha involved in the processes - accidental deaths, disease, curses, suicide, murder, strange accidents.
1953 Tangiwai Disaster (152 dead)
1963 Bynderwyn Bus Crash (15 dead)Te Tiriti o Waitangi
“When those others are at the point of destroying our world, then they will come looking for us for they will have forgotten how to save it! We and our descendants will remember! Only then will they truly honour us!”HE WHAKAMUTUNGA!
Kei hea te ture? E tatari mai ana!HE WHAKAMUTUNGA!
He waiata na Benjamin maua ko te whanaunga rangatira, ko Moeroa Tiatoa
Kei Waenganui i te Awatea