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BCFNS 12

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  1. BCFNS 12 Chapter 2 – Living on the land Harvesting

  2. Some vocabulary • stewardship – the idea that the people must look after the land and its resources, so that it will support the people forever; use only what you need • material culture – objects made and used by a group of people; how the objects are made, used, and how that connects to the beliefs and lives of the people

  3. How material goods are used • daily use – like food, clothing shelter • ceremonial use – like weddings, funerals, celebrations • spiritual use – to thank the creator, or to give back to nature, or to purify an object, or to pray with

  4. Using Technology • When we think ‘technology’ we think computers, cell phones and so forth • It is important to understand that technology is anything that is used to get the things we need for survival and enjoyment from life

  5. Harvesting Resources • First Nations people developed a wide variety of technologies for harvesting resources, and processing them • First Nations developed a high degree of skill to survive on the land

  6. Gathering Plants • Plants were an important raw material for food, shelter, medicines, art • Hundreds of different plants were used • A camas digging tool held by Songhees First Nations manager (Victoria)

  7. Plants • Some plants were tended – for example the wild potatoes of the Southern Interior were replanted each year • Sometimes crops were maintained by controlled burning- saskatoon berries, camas bulb fields

  8. Tree Falling • A chopping adze • Or controlled burning at the base Not authentic as far as I can tell, but you get the idea of what an adze is… we’ll keep looking for a better image

  9. Fishing Techniques • Skeena River – 1915 • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:First_Nations_girl_fishing_on_the_Skeena_River,_1915.jpg

  10. Fishing technology • Aboriginal salmon traps, 1837 on Vancouver Island

  11. Fishing Weir • Fraser Lake, 1909 • http://www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/exhibits/timemach/galler05/frames/fnations.htm

  12. Fishing Techniques • Dip Net

  13. Stone Traps • “The stones are probably remnants of ancient fish traps, which once measured at least four feet in height, that were constructed by First Nations thousands of years ago. The stones were arranged into walls in areas where salmon were known to mingle or migrate. At low tide, the fish would be trapped and then selectively harvested by local people.” http://www.ecotrust.ca/category/subtopics/mapping

  14. Beach Seine • Drag net – 1880, Namgis • Look in text for other pictures of fishing tools – pages 36-38

  15. Hunting Skills Needed • Tracking skills • Knowledge of the huge territories as they tracked the game • Understand animal behaviour • Mimic sounds of animals

  16. Hunting Technologies • Bow and arrow • Working in groups or alone • Fences or corrals • Deadfalls (a heavy log falls on the animal when it walks underneath and trips the trap) • Pits dug along the animal’s paths, and covering hole with light vegetation (tree boughs) – animal is then trapped in the hole