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Learning. Long lasting change in behavior due to experience. Classical Conditioning. Ivan Pavlov Studied Digestion of Dogs. Dogs would salivate before they were given food (triggered by sounds, lights etc…) Dogs must have LEARNED to salivate. Click above to see about Pavlov.
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Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience.
Classical Conditioning • Ivan Pavlov • Studied Digestion of Dogs. • Dogs would salivate before they were given food (triggered by sounds, lights etc…) • Dogs must have LEARNED to salivate. Click above to see about Pavlov
Classical Conditioning • This is passive learning (automatic…learner does NOT have to think). • First thing you need is a unconditional relationship. • Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)- something that elicits a natural, reflexive response. • Unconditional Response (UCR)- response to the UCS.
Classical Conditioning • Next you find a neutral stimulus (something that by itself elicits no response). • You present the stimulus with the UCS a whole bunch of times.
Classical Conditioning • After a while, the body begins to link together the neutral stimulus with the UCS. • Acquisition
Classical Conditioning • We know learning takes places when the previously neutral stimulus elicits a response. • At this point the neutral stimulus is called the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditional response becomes the conditioned response (CR).
Classical Conditioning • TRICKY FACT: We know learning exists because the CS is linked to the UCS. • This is called ACQUISITION. • Acquisition does not last forever. • The moment the CS is no longer associated with the UCS, we have EXTINCTION.
Popular Classical Conditioning Examples See if you can identify the UCS, UCR, CS and CR. Classical Conditioning as portrayed in The Office. A modified version of Clockwork Orange scene. Warning…it is still graphic!!!
Timing Matters • Delayed Conditioning: present CS, while CS is still there, present UCS. • Trace Conditioning: present CS, short break, then present UCS. • Simultaneous Conditioning: CS and UCS are presented at the same time. • Backward Conditioning: UCS is presented, then CS is presented.
What are the following? UCS UCR NS CS CR
Spontaneous Recovery • Sometimes, after extinction, the CR still randomly appears after the CS is presented.
Generalization and Discrimination Generalization Discrimination Something so different to the CS so you do not get a CR. • Something is so similar to the CS that you get a CR.
Classical Conditioning and Humans • John Watson brought Classical Conditioning to psychology with his Baby Albert experiment. Click to see Baby Albert to some nice jazz. This type of Classical Conditioning is also known as Aversive Conditioning.
First-Order and Second-Order Conditioning • First Order Conditioning. • Bell + meat = salivation. • Bell = Salivation. • Second Order Conditioning • (After first order conditioning has occurred) • Light + Bell = Salivation. • Light = Salivation.
Learned Taste Aversions • When it comes to food being paired with sickness, the conditioning is incredible strong. • Even when food and sickness are hours apart. • Food must be salient (noticeable.)
Operant Conditioning The Learner is NOT passive. Learning based on consequence!!!
The Law of Effect • Edward Thorndike • Locked cats in a cage • Behavior changes because of its consequences. • Rewards strengthen behavior. • If consequences are unpleasant, the Stimulus-Reward connection will weaken. • Called the whole process instrumental learning. Click picture to see a better explanation of the Law of Effect.
B.F. Skinner • The Mac Daddy of Operant Conditioning. • Nurture guy through and through. • Used a Skinner Box (Operant Conditioning Chamber) to prove his concepts.
Reinforces • A reinforcer is anything the INCREASES a behavior. Positive Reinforcement: • The addition of something pleasant. Negative Reinforcement: • The removal of something unpleasant. • Two types of NR • Escape Learning • Avoidance Learning (Getting kicked out of class versus cutting class)
Positive or Negative? Studying for a test. Putting your seatbelt on. Having a headache and taking an aspirin. Getting a kiss for doing the dishes. Faking sick to avoid AP Psych class. Breaking out of jail.
Punishment Meant to decrease a behavior. Positive Punishment • Addition of something unpleasant. Negative Punishment (Omission Training) • Removal of something pleasant. Punishment works best when it is immediately done after behavior and if it is harsh!
How do we actually use Operant Conditioning? To train a dog to get your slippers, you would have to reinforce him in small steps. First, to find the slippers. Then to put them in his mouth. Then to bring them to you and so on…this is shaping behavior. Do we wait for the subject to deliver the desired behavior? Sometimes, we use a process called shaping. Shaping is reinforcing small steps on the way to the desired behavior. To get Barry to become a better student, you need to do more than give him a massage when he gets good grades. You have to give him massages when he studies for ten minutes, or for when he completes his homework. Small steps to get to the desired behavior.
Chaining Behaviors • Subjects are taught a number of responses successively in order to get a reward. Click picture to see a rat chaining behaviors. Click to see a cool example of chaining behaviors.
Same Terminology as Classical Conditioning • Acquisition • Extinction • Spontaneous Recovery • Generalization • Discrimination If I wanted to reinforce my son’s dancing by giving him lollipops when he dances. Identify the following….
Primary v. Secondary Reinforcers Primary Reinforcer Secondary Reinforcer Things we have learned to value. Money is a special secondary reinforcer called a generalized reinforcer (because it can be traded for just about anything) • Things that are in themselves rewarding.
Token Economy • Every time a desired behavior is performed, a token is given. • They can trade tokens in for a variety of prizes (reinforcers) • Used in homes, prisons, mental institutions and schools.
Premack Principle • You have to take into consideration the reinforcers used. • Is the reinforcer wanted….or at least is it more preferable than the targeted behavior. Pat’s Hubbas might be a great positive reinforcer for me, but it would not work well on a vegetarian.
Reinforcement Schedules How often to you give the reinforcer? • Every time or just sometimes you see the behavior.
Continuous v. Partial Reinforcement Continuous Partial Reinforce the behavior only SOME of the times it is exhibited. Acquisition comes more slowly. But is more resistant to extinction. FOUR types of Partial Reinforcement schedules. • Reinforce the behavior EVERYTIME the behavior is exhibited. • Usually done when the subject is first learning to make the association. • Acquisition comes really fast. • But so does extinction.
Ratio Schedules Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Provides a reinforcement after a RANDOM number of responses. Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction. • Provides a reinforcement after a SET number of responses. Fixed Ration- She gets a manicure for every 5 pounds she loses.
Interval Schedules Fixed Interval Variable Interval Requires a RANDOM amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement. Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction. • Requires a SET amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement. Fixed Interval: She gets a manicure for every 7 days she stays on her diet.
Observational Learning • Albert Bandura and his BoBo Doll • We learn through modeling behavior from others. • Observational learning + Operant Conditioning = Social Learning Theory Click pic to see some observational learning.
Latent Leaning • Edward Tolman • Three rat experiment. • Latent means hidden. • Sometimes learning is not immediately evident. • Rats needed a reason to display what they have learned. • Cognitive Maps
Insight Learning • Wolfgang Kohler and his Chimpanzees. • Some animals learn through the “ah ha” experience. Click pic to see insight learning.