Unit X. Organic Chemistry . Shelly Wei Mathew Jiang Johnny Yu Mike Chi. A prior question:. What is ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ?.
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What is functional groups?
Different groups of atoms have different manner or properties.
What is R?
R is a monovalent functional group.
Something that possesses a charge of -1.
Carbonyl: A carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C=O.
What is carbonyl?
What is hydroxyl?
Hydroxyl: A hydroxyl is a chemical functional group containing an oxygen atom connected by a covalent bond to a hydrogen atom, a pairing that can be simply understood as a substructure of the water molecule. R-OH
Find the regulation?
Carboxylic acids are polar. Because they are both hydrogen-bond acceptors (the carbonyl) and hydrogen-bond donors (the hydroxyl), they also participate in hydrogen bonding.
Carboxylic acids usually exist as dimeric pairs in nonpolar media due to their tendency to “self-associate.”
Smaller carboxylic acids (1 to 5 carbons) are soluble in water, whereas higher carboxylic acids are less soluble due to the increasing hydrophobic nature of the alkyl chain. These longer chain acids tend to be rather soluble in less-polar solvents such as ethers and alcohols.
*A dimeris a chemical entity consisting of two structurally similar monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
Carboxylic acids are typically weak acids, meaning that they only partially dissociate into H+cations and RCOO– anions in neutral aqueous solution. For example, at room temperature, only 0.4% of all acetic acid molecules are dissociated.
*Electronegative substituents give stronger acids.
It must be vinegar… because of its odor.
Just identify which are the carboxylic acids?