Operator Protection. Chapter 5. Operator Protection. The Guidelines for the dental radiographer are based on the following rule: The dental radiographer must avoid the primary beam. Operator protection guidelines include recommendations on Distance Shielding Positioning.
Operator Protection Chapter 5
Operator Protection • The Guidelines for the dental radiographer are based on the following rule: • The dental radiographer must avoid the primary beam. • Operator protection guidelines include recommendations on • Distance • Shielding • Positioning
Distance Recommendations • The operator must stand at least 6 feet away from the x-ray tubehead during exposure. • When maintaining this distance is not possible, a protective barrier must to used
Shielding Recommendations • Protective Barriers absorb the primary beam thus protecting the operator from primary and scatter radiation. • Whenever possible, the dental radiographer should stand behind a protective barrier during x-ray exposure.
Protective Barriers • Most dental offices achieve adequate shielding through the use of several layers of thickness of common materials such as drywall.
Positioning Recommendations • To avoid the primary beam, the operator should stand PERPENDICULAR (90 degree angle) to the primary beam OR… • At a 90 – 135 degree angle to the primary beam. • See p. 52, Figure 5-13 of your texts.
In the absence of a barrier… • The operator should stand • a minimum of 6 feet from the patient • at an angle of 90-135 degrees from the patient.
Final Operator Protection • Never hold the film in place for a patient. • Never hold the tubehead during exposure.
Radiation Monitoring • For the Operator • And the Equipment • Leakage Radiation is any radiation other than the primary beam which comes from the dental tubehead.
Radiation Monitoring • Dosimeter/ Film Badge – Is used to record any radiation which may be received by the operator. • Each operator has his/her own badge; • worn during the workday • when in the clinical area • Worn at waist level • Stored in radiation-safe area when not in use.
Dosimeter/Film Badge • After specified interval of wear, badge is returned to the service company. • It is processed and evaluated for exposure. • Written report is provided to the dental office for each radiographer
Radiation Exposure Guidelines • Radiation Safety Legislation • State and federal level • Protects patient, operator, and general public from radiation hazards • 1968: standardize performance of x-ray equipment • 1981: education and certification of persons using radiographic equipment • DANB Radiation Health and Safety Exam required in CT before DA can expose radiographs legally
Maximum Permissible DoseMPD • Defined as the maximum dose equivalent that a body is permitted to receive in a specific period of time; • It is based on the dose of radiation that the body can endure with little or no injury • The regulations for MPD are established by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement
MPD Guidlines • Occupationally exposed persons: • 5.0 rems/year 0.05 Sv/year • Non-occupationally exposed persons: • 0.1 rem/year 0.001 Sv/year • Occupationally exposed pregnant woman: • 0.1 rem/year 0.001 Sv/yr
Operator Exposure • While we are allowed a maximum of 5 rems per year as personnel working with ionizing radiation, our goal is ZERO EXPOSURE!
Maximum Accumulated DoseMAD • Accumulated lifetime radiation dose • Occupationally exposed workers • Formula based on worker’s age: • MAD = N – 18 X 5 rems/year • N refers to person’s age in years • 18 refers to minimum age required for person who works with radiation
ALARA concept • All exposure to radiation must be kept to a minimum: • “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” • Use every possible method of reducing exposure to radiation to minimize risk • This includes the use of minimum exposure time in combination with the fastest film available.
Patient Education • Radiographer must be prepared to answer patient’s questions regarding radiation and protection • Conversation about radiation protection can take place as the radiographer prepares the equipment and patient for exposure to x-radiation • See page 53 for examples of questions or appropriate statements
Radiation Treatment for Oral Cancer • Radiation Therapy for the treatment of Oral Cancer can be an effective component of treatment, but can also have side effects. • These include: • Cervical decay • Difficulty swallowing