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Lobes of the Lungs. Lungs are divided into _______ (in most species) Pattern varies with species Dogs, cats, cattle, pigs, goats, sheep → deeply fissured into lobes L: Cranial and Caudal R: Cranial, Middle, Caudal, Accessory Horses → least subdivided L: All one lobe

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lobes of the lungs
Lobes of the Lungs
  • Lungs are divided into _______ (in most species)
    • Pattern varies with species
      • Dogs, cats, cattle, pigs, goats, sheep → deeply fissured into lobes
        • L: Cranial and Caudal
        • R: Cranial, Middle, Caudal, Accessory
      • Horses → least subdivided
        • L: All one lobe
        • R: All one lobe + accessory
  • Lobes are distinguished by the major branches of the bronchi
lungs continued
Lungs continued
  • __________- small, well-defined area on medial side of the lung
    • Location of air, blood, lymph, and nerves entering and leaving the lung.
pulmonary circulation this is a review
Pulmonary Circulation- THIS IS A REVIEW!!!!
  • ______________ blood enters the lungs from ______ ventricle of heart through the pulmonary ______.
    • Pulmonary artery splits into left and right pulmonary arteries that enter the two lungs
    • Pulmonary arterioles enter capillary networks around the alveoli
  • Oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium in the pulmonary veins.
thoracic cavity
Thoracic Cavity
  • Bound by __________ vertebrae dorsally, ______ & _____________ muscles laterally, the __________ ventrally, and the _____________caudally.
  • Mediastinum – area between lungs REVIEW!!!
    • Contains heart, trachea, esophagus, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic structures, thymus
pleura review
Pleura- REVIEW!!!
  • Serous membrane that lines thoracic cavity and covers organs and structures in thorax
    • __________ layer covers thoracic organs and structures
    • __________ layer lines the cavity
  • Space between the two pleural layers is filled with a small amount of pleural _________ (same in abdomen, pericardium)
    • Helps ensure that surfaces of organs slide smoothly along lining of thorax during breathing (_______________)
diaphragm review
Diaphragm- REVIEW!!!
  • Thin, dome-shaped sheet of skeletal muscle
  • Forms caudal boundary of thorax
    • Base of lungs lie directly on the cranial surface and the liver lies on the caudal surface
  • Important respiratory muscle
    • Dome-shaped when ___________
    • Flattens when it __________
    • Enlarges volume of thorax and aids inspiration
process of respiration
Process of Respiration
  • Requires effective movement of air into and out of lungs at an appropriate rate and in sufficient volume to meet the body’s needs at any particular time.
    • Pressure within the thorax is ____________ with respect to atmospheric pressure.
      • Pulls lungs tight against the thoracic wall
      • Flexible nature of lungs allows them to conform with shape of the thoracic wall.
      • Pleural fluid provides __________.
      • Lungs follow passively as movements of thoracic wall and diaphragm alternately enlarge and reduce volume of thorax
      • Negative intrathoracic pressure helps draw blood through ________ in the mediastinum and into atria
pneumothorax
Pneumothorax

Leakage of air into thorax → Loss of negative pressure in lungs

(causes “collapsed lung”)

  • Causes (many: basically 1 of 2 things happens)
    • Penetrating wound of chest
    • Rupture of alveoli
  • Rx
    • Remedy cause
    • Remove air from thorax
      • Needle/syringe (aka ________________)
      • Chest tube
inspiration
Inspiration
  • Process of drawing air into lungs (inhalation)
  • Results from increasing volume of thoracic cavity by inspiratory muscles
    • Main inspiratory muscles: _________ and ____________ intercostal muscles
      • External intercostals located in external portion of intercostal spaces (between ribs)
      • Diaphragm enlarges the thoracic cavity by flattening out.
expiration
Expiration
  • Process of pushing air out of lungs (exhalation)
  • Results from decrease in size of thoracic cavity
  • Main expiratory muscles: ___________ intercostal muscles and ____________ muscles
    • Internal intercostal muscles located between the ribs, deep to the external intercostal muscles
    • Contraction of abdominal muscles pushes abdominal organs against the diaphragm and pushes diaphragm back into its full dome shape.
respiratory volumes
Respiratory Volumes
  • ___________ volume – volume of air inspired and expired during one breath.
    • Varies according to body’s needs.
      • Smaller when animal is at rest and larger when excited and active.
  • __________ volume – volume of air inspired and expired during one minute.
    • Calculated by multiplying the tidal volume by breaths per minute.
    • Measured in mL or Liters
  • __________ volume – volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration.
    • Residual volume always remains, lungs will never be completely emptied of air.
alveolar gas exchange review
Alveolar Gas Exchange- REVIEW!!
  • Simple _________ of gas molecules from areas of _____ concentration to areas of _____ concentration.
  • _____ diffuses from the alveolar air into the blood of the alveolar capillary
  • _____diffuses from the blood into the alveolus
respiratory center
Respiratory Center
  • Even though all of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles are skeletal muscles under voluntary control, breathing does not require a conscious effort.
  • Breathing is controlled by an area in the _________ ___________ of the brain stem known as the Respiratory Center.
      • Directs timing and strength of contraction
    • Can be consciously controlled for brief periods, therefore the muscles are considered “voluntary”
mechanical control system
Mechanical Control System
  • __________ receptors in the lungs set limits on routine resting inspiration and expiration.
    • Respiratory center sends out nerve impulses when lungs inflate to a certain point
      • Stops muscle contractions that produce inspiration and starts contractions to produce expiration
    • Another set of nerve impulses sent when lungs deflate sufficiently
      • Stops expiration and starts the process of inspiration again
chemical control system
Chemical Control System
  • Adjusts normal rhythmic breathing pattern produced by mechanical control system
  • Chemical (peripheral) receptors in carotid artery and aorta monitor blood _____, ____, and ____.
    • Central chemical receptors are located in the medulla oblongata.
chemical control system1
Chemical Control System
  • Blood level of CO2 and blood pH are usually linked
    • __CO2 in blood and __blood pH triggers respiratory center to increase rate and depth of respiration
    • __CO2 in blood and __blood pH triggers respiratory center to decrease rate and depth of respiration
chemical control system2
Chemical Control System
  • _______ - decrease in blood O2 level
  • Slight hypoxia triggers respiratory center to increase the rate and depth of breathing
  • Severe hypoxia - neurons of the respiratory center can become so depressed that adequate nerve impulses cannot be sent to the respiratory muscles
    • Can cause breathing to decrease or stop completely