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  1. spectator Richard Steele

  2. Richard Steele • Richard Steele (later Sir Richard) was born in Dublin, Ireland. His father, an attorney, died when he was five. His uncle paid for his education, sending him to Charterhouse in 1684.

  3. Richard Steele • From there he went to Oxford, but left without taking a degree to pursue a career in the army. He attained the rank of captain before leaving the army in 1705.

  4. Richard Steele • Steele had begun to write while he was still in the army. In 1701 he penned a spiritual work called The Christian Hero.

  5. Richard Steele • He then wrote an immensely popular play, The Conscious Lovers. • Over the course of his career he wrote several plays, periodicals and political pamphlets.

  6. Richard Steele • Steele's personality could best be described as that of a "Good Time Charlie". He was convivial, generous to a fault, and a lover of food and drink. His dissolute lifestyle led him into debt on more than one occasion.

  7. Richard Steele • Partly for this reason he married a wealthy widow named Margaret Stretch in 1705. In 1714 Steele was named Governor of the Drury Lane Theatre, and was knighted the following year.

  8. Richard Steele • Steele's health deteriorated as a result of his intemperate habits. He died on 1 September 1729, aged 58 years.

  9. The spectator • The Spectator was a major agent in the spread of Enlightenment ideas. Historian Isser Woloch points out that as the Enlightenment spread across Europe towards the East, "the first rays of literary culture to penetrate were usually in the form of Spectator-like periodicals."

  10. The spectator • The same applied in the westward direction: Benjamin Franklin reprinted several essays from The Spectator in the American colonies, even though by then they were at least 50 years old.

  11. No. 2Friday, March 2, 1711 • The second number of The Spectator introduces the members of the "Spectator Club", Mr. Spectator's close friends. This forms a cast of secondary characters which The Spectator can draw on in its stories and examples of social conduct and are drawn from many different walks of life.

  12. No. 2Friday, March 2, 1711 AstAliisex Et pluresunoconclamant ore. Juvenal.

  13. No. 2Friday, March 2, 1711 • The first of our Society is a Gentleman of Worcestershire, of antient Descent, a Baronet, his Name Sir Roger De Coverly. His great Grandfather was Inventor of that famous Country-Dance which is call'd after him.

  14. No. 2Friday, March 2, 1711 • All who know that Shire are very well acquainted with the Parts and Merits of Sir Roger. He is a Gentleman that is very singular in his Behaviour, but his Singularities proceed from his good Sense, and are Contradictions to the Manners of the World, only as he thinks the World is in the wrong.

  15. No. 2Friday, March 2, 1711 • However, this Humour creates him no Enemies, for he does nothing with Sourness or Obstinacy; and his being unconfined to Modes and Forms, makes him but the readier and more capable to please and oblige all who know him. When he is in town he lives in Soho Square2:

  16. No. 2Friday, March 2, 1711 • It is said, he keeps himself a Batchelour by reason he was crossed in Love by a perverse beautiful Widow of the next County to him. Before this Disappointment, Sir Roger was what you call a fine Gentleman, had often supped with my Lord Rochester3 and SirGeorge Etherege4, fought a Duel upon his first coming to Town, and kick'd Bully Dawson5 in a publick Coffee-house for calling him Youngster.

  17. But being ill-used by the above-mentioned Widow, he was very serious for a Year and a half; and tho' his Temper being naturally jovial, he at last got over it, he grew careless of himself and never dressed afterwards; he continues to wear a Coat and Doublet of the same Cut that were in Fashion at the Time of his Repulse, which, in his merry Humours, he tells us, has been in and out twelve Times since he first wore it. '

  18. No. 2Friday, March 2, 1711 • 'Tis said Sir Roger grew humble in his Desires after he had forgot this cruel Beauty, insomuch that it is reported he has frequently offended in Point of Chastity with Beggars and Gypsies: but this is look'd upon by his Friends rather as Matter of Raillery than Truth.

  19. No. 2Friday, March 2, 1711 • He is now in his Fifty-sixth Year, cheerful, gay, and hearty, keeps a good House in both Town and Country; a great Lover of Mankind; but there is such a mirthful Cast in his Behaviour, that he is rather beloved than esteemed. His Tenants grow rich, his Servants look satisfied, all the young Women profess Love to him, and the young Men are glad of his Company.

  20. No. 2Friday, March 2, 1711 • When he comes into a House he calls the Servants by their Names, and talks all the way Up Stairs to a Visit. I must not omit that Sir Roger is a Justice of the Quorum; that he fills the chair at a Quarter-Session with great Abilities, and three Months ago, gained universal Applause by explaining a Passage in the Game-Act.