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  1. Selecting the Proper Coating/Lining System Kevin Morris Market Director Water & Wastewater Sherwin-Williams

  2. Learning Objectives • Primary substrates for application • Protection mechanisms • Selecting the proper surface preparation based on the selected system and substrate • Proper selection of the system.

  3. Primary Substrates • Steel • Carbon Steel– Easily attacked by the environment in which it is placed and will begin to revert back to iron ore. • Stainless Steel- Stainless steel does not stain, corrode, or rust as easily as ordinary steel. • Concrete • Concrete - used more than any other man-made material in the world and is easily attacked when placed in chemical environments.

  4. Protection Mechanisms • Barrier Protection • The coating/lining isolates the electrolyte from the anode, cathode, and metallic pathway. • Rust Inhibitive • The slightly water-soluble pigments permeate to steel/coating interface and passivate the substrate. • Sacrificial • The coating/lining contains pigments that are more active than the metal and sacrifice themselves to protect the substrate.

  5. System Selection • System selection for coatings/linings is not as simple as providing a coating that will resist a given commodity and • System selection mustconsider a multitude of factors for a successful application.

  6. System Selection(Factors to Consider) Steel Concrete Commodity (Name, CAS #, Percentage) Storage Temperature Location and Use of Structure Type of Traffic (Foot, Cart or Vehicular) Agitation (% of Suspended Solids) Mix Design, Placement and Finishing Joints, Cracks,Vapor Barriers, etc. New Construction or Rehabilitation • Commodity (Name, CAS #, Percentage) • Storage Temperature • Movement / Flexibility • Type of Structure • Location and Use of Structure • Agitation (% of Suspended Solids) • Design (Welded, Bolted or Riveted) • Inaccessible Areas • New Construction, Repaint or Structural Repairs

  7. System Selection(Factors to Consider) Do any of these place restrictions on system selection for Steel and Concrete? • The reason for coating? • Allowable methods of Surface Preparation • Regulations • What else?

  8. Surface Preparation Affects on System Selection • SSPC-SP 1 “Solvent Cleaning” • SSPC-SP 2 “Hand Tool Cleaning” • SSPC-SP 3 “Power Tool Cleaning” • SSPC-SP 11 “ Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal” • SSPC-SP 7/NACE No. 4 “Brush-Off Blast Cleaning” • SSPC-SP 6/NACE No. 3 “Commercial Blast Cleaning”

  9. Surface Preparation Affects on System Selection • SSPC-SP 10/NACE No. 2 “Near White Metal Blast Cleaning” • SSPC-SP 5/NACE No. 1 “White Metal Blast Cleaning” • SSPC-SP 12/NACE No. 5 “Surface Preparation and Cleaning of Metals by Waterjetting Prior to Coating” • SSPC-SP 13/NACE No. 6 “Surface Preparation of Concrete”

  10. Surface Preparation Affects in System Selection • ICRI Guideline No. 310.2, “Selecting and Specifying Concrete Surface Preparation for Sealers, Coatings and Polymer Overlays”

  11. Surface Preparation Affects on System Selection • When specifying surface cleanliness it should be noted that surface profile is as important. • Surface profile promotes mechanical bond of the coating/lining system to the substrate. • Steel (This is commonly specified in mils) • Concrete (This is commonly specified as a CSP (1-9) “Concrete Surface Profile”)

  12. Surface Preparation Affects on System Selection The greater the DFT the greater the Surface Profile

  13. Surface Preparation Affects on System Selection The greater the DFT the greater the Surface Profile

  14. Surface Preparation Affects on System Selection The greater the DFT the greater the Surface Profile

  15. Surface Preparation Affects on System Selection • Minimum DFT’s to fill surface profiles: • CSP 1 = 13.5 mils +/- 2.5 mils • CSP 2 = 16 mils +/- 2.5 mils • CSP 3 = 19 mils +/- 2.5 mils • CSP 4 = 25 mils +/- 2.5 mils • CSP 5 = 33 mils +/- 2.5 mils • CSP 6 = 63 mils +/- 2.5 mils • CSP 7 = 87.5 mils +/- 5 mils • CSP 8 = 105 mils +/- 5 mils • CSP 9 = 107 mils +/- 5 mils

  16. Epoxies • Epoxies are two component products consisting of an epoxy resin which is cross-linked with a co-reactant or hardener. Epoxy coatings are formulated based upon the performance requirements of the end product. When properly catalyzed and applied, epoxies produce a hard, chemical and solvent resistant finish. They are typically used on concrete and steel to give resistance to water, alkali and acids.

  17. Aliphatic Polyurethanes • Atmospheric Service • Good Chemical & Solvent Resistance • Good Flexibility • Excellent Color and Gloss Retention • Excellent Abrasion Resistant • Low Temperature Application

  18. Aromatic Polyurethanes • Atmospheric and Immersion Service • Good Chemical & Solvent Resistance • Good Flexibility • Good Abrasion Resistant • Good Film Build • Low Temperature Applications

  19. Fluoropolymers • Atmospheric Service • Good Chemical & Solvent Resistance • Good Flexibility • Ultimate Color and Gloss Retention • Excellent Abrasion Resistance

  20. Polysiloxanes • Atmospheric Service • Good Chemical & Solvent Resistance • Good Flexibility • Excellent Color and Gloss Retention • Good Abrasion Resistant

  21. Acrylics • Atmospheric Service • Fair Chemical & Solvent Resistance • Good Flexibility • Good Color and Gloss Retention • Good Abrasion Resistance

  22. Alkyds • Atmospheric Service • Fair/Poor Chemical & Solvent Resistance • Good Flexibility • Fair/Poor Color and Gloss Retention • Good Abrasion Resistant

  23. Zincs • Atmospheric and Immersion Service • Poor Resistance to Alkali and Acidic Environments • Excellent Corrosion Protection • Some Formulations – Shop Applications Only

  24. Polyureas • Atmospheric and Immersion Service • Fair Chemical & Solvent Resistance • Ultimate Flexibility • Ultimate Abrasion Resistance • Excellent Film Build • Low Temperature Applications

  25. Novolac/Phenolic Epoxies • Atmospheric and Immersion Service • Excellent Chemical & Solvent Resistance • Fair/Poor Flexibility • Good Abrasion Resistant • Good Film Build • May require heat curing

  26. Vinyl Esters / Polyesters • Atmospheric and Immersion Service • Excellent Chemical & Solvent Resistance • Fair Flexibility • Good Abrasion Resistance • Fast Cure • Min Cure Temps Required

  27. Thin Film Coatings/Linings • Generally systems up to 20 mils DFT designed for corrosion protection of concrete and steel from immersion and atmospheric exposure. • Do not tolerate abrasive conditions (high solids, agitation, turbulent flow) • Least expensive alternative (price sensitivity) • Usually spray applied, simple equipment • Difficult to cover rough concrete

  28. Thin Film Systems

  29. Medium Film Coatings/Linings • Generally are systems from 20 to 40 mils DFT designed for the protection of concrete and steel from more harsh environments in immersion and secondary containment • Will tolerate moderate abrasion from turbulent flow and low solids cargo • Used for containment areas with pedestrian and light vehicular traffic, trenches and sumps • Highest permeation resistance per mil

  30. Medium Film Coatings/Linings

  31. Laminate Linings • Generally are 55 to 120 mil dft systems designed for the corrosion protection of concrete and steel in immersion conditions, secondary containment, and steel tank bottom renewal. • Single or double Laminate • Will tolerate moderate solids, agitation and turbulent flow • Limited crack bridging capability

  32. Laminate Lining Systems

  33. Mortar Systems • Generally are 125 to 250 mil dft systems designed for the protection of concrete in more harsh environments and tolerate moderate to heavy industrial traffic • Good thermal shock resistance • Improved wear resistance • Skilled mechanics required for installation

  34. Mortar Systems

  35. Self-Leveling Mortar Systems • Generally are 70 to 125 mils dft designed for the corrosion protection of concrete in more harsh environments and can include a broadcast aggregate for a textured finish. • Easiest mortar system to install • Vertical applications will require modifications to eliminate the self-leveling properties • Good wear resistance • Limited thermal shock resistance

  36. Self-Leveling Mortar System

  37. Mortar Laminate Systems • Generally are 90 to 125 mil dft systems designed for the corrosion protection of concrete and steel in immersion and secondary containment • Will tolerate turbulent flow and agitation • Good permeation resistance • Good thermal shock resistance • Requires skill and experience

  38. Mortar Laminate Systems

  39. Heavy Duty Mortar Laminate Lining Systems • Generally are 125 to 190 mil dft systems designed for the protection of concrete and steel in immersion and secondary containment. • Best for high solids, agitation, and turbulent flow • Good permeation resistance • Good thermal shock resistance • Highest cost, most skill required

  40. Heavy Duty Mortar Laminate Lining Systems

  41. Flexible Coating/Lining Systems • Generally 25 to 125 mil dft systems designed for the corrosion protection of steel, concrete, and masonry in atmospheric or immersion conditions. • High thermal shock resistance • High crack bridging capability • Relatively easy to install at a moderate price range

  42. Flexible Coating and Lining Systems

  43. Flexible Basecoat Laminate Systems • Generally are 45-65 mil dft systems designed to be installed prior to the application of a topping system for crack bridging capability in atmospheric exposure on concrete. • Highest thermal shock resistance • Highest crack bridging capability • Most versatile

  44. Flexible Basecoat Laminate System

  45. Technologies That Improve Performance Crystals of MIO are fractured into thin flakes. Flakes then align in parallel fashion.

  46. Technologies That Improve Performance Topcoat Holiday: Blue crescent is prime coat fluorescence. White Light Inspection Fluorescent Inspection

  47. Thank You! Any Questions