children and tuberculosis exposing a hidden epidemic n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Children and Tuberculosis Exposing a Hidden Epidemic PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Children and Tuberculosis Exposing a Hidden Epidemic

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 17

Children and Tuberculosis Exposing a Hidden Epidemic - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 86 Views
  • Uploaded on

Children and Tuberculosis Exposing a Hidden Epidemic. Mandy Slutsker September 21, 2011. TB basics. TB is an infectious disease caused by bacteria that is spread through the air Latent TB infection vs. active TB disease 1/3 of world’s population has latent TB

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Children and Tuberculosis Exposing a Hidden Epidemic' - rasha


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
tb basics
TB basics
  • TB is an infectious disease caused by bacteria that is spread through the air
  • Latent TB infection vs. active TB disease
  • 1/3 of world’s population has latent TB
  • 9.4 million get active TB disease every year
  • Drug resistance, link with HIV
types of active tb
Types of active TB
  • Pulmonary vs. extrapulmonary
  • Smear positive vs. smear negative
  • Drug susceptible vs. drug resistant
how is tb different in children
How is TB different in children?
  • Most children are smear-negative
  • Difficult to diagnose
  • Children are prone to severe types of TB such as TB meningitis
how many kids get tb
How many kids get TB?

We’re not exactly sure. Here’s why:

  • Most countries only report ‘smear positive cases’. Only 10-15% of children are smear positive
  • Most cases go unreported
  • Best numbers we have are from the WHO (2009): every year, over 1 million children get TB and ~176,000 die as a result
can children get drug resistant tb
Can children get drug resistant TB?
  • Yes, children get MDR-TB. However, WHO surveys only include adults
  • Studies in South Africa show 9% of childhood TB cases are drug resistant
  • It is curable, but takes medical care and extremely expensive treatment
  • Far cheaper to prevent MDR-TB by ensuring kids are properly treated for drug-susceptible TB
risk factors
Risk Factors
  • Poverty
  • Young Age
  • Malnutrition
  • Orphans and Vulnerable Children
  • HIV
  • Maternal TB
diagnosing tb in children
Diagnosing TB in children
  • No gold standard; diagnosing often done by trial and error.
  • WHO has yet to approve Xpert MTB/RIF for use in children
  • However, a preliminary study from July 2011 show the test may be effective in children
how do we treat children with tb
How do we treat children with TB?
  • No child-specific TB drugs exist
  • Often, health workers crush adult tablets and estimate doses for children
  • We need a Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) for children
how can we prevent tb in children
How can we prevent TB in children?

Answer: the Four I’s

  • Intensified Case Finding
  • Isoniazid Preventive Therapy
  • Infection Control
  • Integration
what do need to tackle childhood tb
What do need to tackle childhood TB?
  • Child-friendly diagnostics
  • Fixed Dose Combination treatment
  • TB vaccine
  • Children included in clinical trials

…All this requires increased resources!

a call to action
A call to action
  • Fighting childhood TB must become a global health priority
  • Universal access to current available tools
  • Integrate TB services with child health primary care
  • Include children in clinical trials
  • Innovative research
  • Children with HIV should be placed on ART
education
Education
  • Children with TB fall behind in school
  • Harms ability to earn good wages in the future
  • When parents are sick, children leave school to earn money for the family
poverty
Poverty
  • Parents take time off work to care for sick children, results in loss of family income
  • High cost of health care may force families to sell belongings to pay for care and treatment