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The Renaissance. The Italian Renaissance. 1. The Italian Renaissance. Causes Increased trade with Asia and other regions as a result of the Crusades Growth of large, wealthy city-states in Italy Renewed interest in the Classical learning of the Ancient Greece and Rome

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1 the italian renaissance
1. The Italian Renaissance
  • Causes
    • Increased trade with Asia and other regions as a result of the Crusades
    • Growth of large, wealthy city-states in Italy
    • Renewed interest in the Classical learning of the Ancient Greece and Rome
    • Rise of rich and powerful merchants, who became patrons of the arts
    • Increased desire for scientific and technical knowledge
    • Desire to beautify cities

b. Humanism

  • Scholars began to think about the characteristics of a good education
  • Rhetoric, grammar, poetry, history, Latin and Greek
    • Became known as the humanities and gave use to the movement known as humanism
  • Humanist emphasized individual accomplishment
  • 3 writers who contributed to the movement
    • Dante Alighieri
    • GiovianniBoccacio
    • Franceso Petrarch

c. Secular Writers

  • Focus was secular- they had a worldly rather than a spiritual focus

ii. Baldassare Castiglione

  • Wrote “The Courtier”
    • Describes how gentlemen and women should act during the Renaissance
    • Book suggests 4 ideas
      • Speak of serious subjects as well as amusing ones
      • Know Latin and Greek
      • Well acquainted with poetry and history
      • Be able to write prose as well as poetry

iii. Niccolo Machiavelli

  • Was a political philosopher and statesman
  • Experiences shaped his view on how governments should rule
  • Wrote “The Prince”
    • Encourages harsh treatment of citizens and rival states
    • Advises rulers to separate moral from politics
    • Insists a ruler must do whatever is necessary to maintain power
d science
d. Science
  • Nicholas Copernicus
    • Challenges the church’s idea about nature
    • Polish astronomer
    • Suggested that the sun sat at the center of the universe, orbited by planets and stars

ii. Galileo Galilei

  • Italian astronomer
  • Wrote that the earth orbited the sun
  • Placed under house arrest by church officials
e patrons
e. Patrons
  • The Medici
    • A wealthy, powerful family that ruled Florence and supported the arts
    • Lorenzo de Medici
      • Supported some of the most talented artist of the day
2 italian renaissance artists
2. Italian Renaissance Artists
  • Leonardo da Vinci
    • Was a painter, writer, inventor, architect engineer, mathematician, musician, and philosopher
    • Two famous paintings
      • The Mona Lisa
      • The Last Supper

iii. Recorded ideas for building armored tank of a flying machine

iv. Sketches of the human anatomy

v. Designed and built canals

vi. Developed a machine to cut threads in screws

v. Designed the first machine guns


b. Michelangelo Buonarroti

  • Two famous sculptures
    • Pieta
      • Communicated themes of grief, love, acceptance and immorality
    • David
  • Sistine Chapel
    • Scenes from the Old Testament painted on the ceiling

c. Raphael

  • Renowned painter and architect
  • “The School of Athens”
    • Is a fresco (a painting made on fresh moist, plaster)
    • Shows Plato and Aristotle surrounded by philosophers from the past and present who were admired by the humanists

Danoto Bramante

    • Architect who designed St. Peter’s Basilica
1 northern renaissance
1. Northern Renaissance
  • Hanseatic League
    • A merchant organization that controlled trade throughout Northern Europe
      • Helped ideas of the Italian Renaissance spread to the North
    • Artists who fled from Italy also helped spread ideas

b. Johannes Gutenburg

  • Cast letters of the alphabet onto metal plates and locked plates into a wooden press
  • With this text could be printed on both sides of the paper
  • 1st publication was the Bible
  • Explosion of printed material quickly spread Renaissance ideas
2 philosophers and writings
2. Philosophers and Writings
  • Erasmus
    • Wrote about the need for a pure and simple Christian life, stripped of the rituals and politics of the church on earth
    • Advised the education of children
    • Works would fan the flames of the growing discontent with the Roman Catholic Church
    • Works were later censored and condemned by the Church

b. Sir Thomas More

  • Wrote “Utopia”
  • Contains both criticism of English government and society and a vision of a perfect society based on reason

c. William Shakespeare

  • English playwright
  • Inspired by ancient and contemporary works of literature
  • Plays helped spread ideas of the Renaissance to a mass audience

d. Christine de Pisan

  • Italian writer
  • Wrote “The City of Women”
    • She discusses different views of women and their role in society
  • Championed equality and education for women
3 artists
3. Artists
  • Albrecht Durer
    • Used the Italian techniques of realism and perspective in his own work
    • Works exhibited features unique to the northern Renaissance
      • Painted in oils

b. Jan van Eyck

  • Focused on landscapes and domestic life
  • Fused the everyday with the religious through the use of symbolism in paintings
    • A single candle or the light streaming through a window are representations of God’s presence