PRE-PRESENTATION PROCESS • Identifying the objective of the presentation • Planning • Identification of the Audience • Research
STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION • Sequential Argument • Hierarchical Decomposition • Question Oriented • Pyramid • Meaty Sandwich
BEGINNING OF THE PRESENTATION • Getting Attention • Establishing theme • Presenting Structure • Creating Rapport
ADMINISTRATION • Administration – The Responsibility of the presenter • Administrative details are not to be overlooked
THEENDING • Making final impression to be remembered • Changing pace • Drawing conclusion
IMPORTANT ASPECTS RELATED TO PRESENTATION SKILLS • Visual Aids • The Delivery • The Eyes • The Voice • Appearance
TECHNIQUES OF SPEECH • Make Impressions • Repeat Repeat • Draw Sign • Draw Picture • Jokes • Narrative • Relaxation
Power Point Presentations -Simple -Consistent -Clear -Big -Progressive -Summary
Make It Big This is Arial 12 This is Arial 18 This is Arial 24 This is Arial 32 This is Arial 36 This is Arial ------(How to Estimate) Look at it from 2 meters away
Keep It Simple and Clear (Text) Avoid: Too many colours Too many fonts and styles Too many Ideas Lengthy paragraphs Unnecessary art work Unnecessary sound effects
Some Final Words Don’t read the slides word-for-word; use them for reference Leave time for questions Be particular about time
The word Communication is derived from “Communis” (Latin) meaning common. (establishes common ground of understanding) A process which involves sharing of information between people through a continuous activity of speaking, listening and understanding. Robert Anderson, in his book ,Professional Selling, defines “Communication is interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information, by speech, writing, or signs”. Allen Louis says, “Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another it involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening, and understanding.”
Communication is dynamic---active, energetic, forceful and constantly changing. Mechanical systems are deterministic and closed Human comm. are not deterministic, but spontaneous and discretionary: that is they respond to moods ,distractions, impulses, all of which can change any moment. (complex) People need people. We can’t be human alone. (social) German Philosopher, Karl Jasper “ Man’s supreme achievement in the world is communication from personality to personality.” (from other creatures) Many people believe that mental illness is primarily a problem of inadequate comm.
Cow is a useful animal. It has four legs . It has two horns. It has one tail. It gives milk.
Sentence Structure • Sentence variation • Precise vocabulary • Appropriate punctuation • Accurate spellings across vocabulary • Paragraph unity • Appropriate tone and register
Variation in sentences Variation in sentence beginning Variation in sentence length Variation in sentence structure
Variation in sentence beginning • Then the fog came . It did not roll in like a wave . It came from nowhere . It was not there – then it was. It wove its gray veil with shocking speed. It surrounded our island silently. It smothered sunlight and sound. It isolated us.
Stepping out of the boat, we landed on spirit island. Pulling the boat up on the beach, we began to explore. Picking our way along the beach, we could feel the stillness watching us, waiting for us.
Variation in sentence structure • We reached Trinidad in the evening and in the morning we headed south through Rotan pass. We ate lunch at Eagle’s Nest, New Mexico ,and then we took a round about rout through the mountains. The gravel road was better than we expected, and the mountains were strikingly beautiful.
Variation in sentence length • I do not consider myself the father of the release of atomic energy. My part in it was quite indirect. I did not, in fact, foresee that it would be released in my time. I believed only that it was theoretically possible. It became practical through the accidental discovery of chain reaction and this was not something I could have predicted. (Albert Einstein)
AVOIDING EMPTY SENTENCES • Schools are too crowded because there are too many students and classes are overcrowded and schools are too smalls as well as the incredible population growth. • Young people find rock music appealing because they really enjoy it.
Exercise empty sentences • In this play you have to have imagination , for there is no scenery and you have to supply scenery form your own mind using your own imagination. • I would like to be a commercial airline pilot because that is what I have always wanted to be. • I like the book because this is the kind of book I enjoy reading. • Most of the inhabitants of India are Hindus but not all the inhabitants are . • I was glad to have a chance to see the TV program . • Scientists say that foods eaten as quickly as possible after picking contains more vitamins , and that prolonged cooking and canning causes foods to have fewer vitamins than if they are freshly picked and eaten. • Always put stereo speakers at least ten feet apart from each other since ten feet apart is the best distance for them to be. • I know I did poorly in the test because I flunked it.
Avoiding overloaded sentences To execute the mandate of New York constitution that the state budget must be balanced at the same time to expand the state aid to political advisors and individuals that he feels the growing needs and rights of the people require, the Governor proposed the record rise of 575 million dollars in state taxes .
Alternate (1) The New York state constitution requires that the state budget should be balanced.(2) On the other hand, the governor feels that the growing needs and the rights of the poor people require an expansion of the state aid(3) To meet these conflicting requirements , he has proposed an increase of 575 million dollars in state taxes.
Avoiding wordiness • Some people prefer the modern artists of today to the classicists of centuries past. • Today there are more teenage drivers on the highways than adult drivers. Some teen-agers should not be drivers. (Today teenage drivers, some of whom should not be permitted on highways, outnumber licensed adults.)
Try studying for one month without the television and radio on and you will see how your grades improve because you have not been distracted by having a television and radio on. (Try study for one month without the distractions of television and radio and you will notice an improvement in your grades.)
Exercise wordy/overloaded sentences • During an ice storm, the car slipped in the ice and slid into ditch. • As a general rule , I am usually at home by four P.M. in the afternoon. • The essential requirement necessary for employment are outlined in this thorough pamphlet which tells you everything you will need to know. • To my way of thinking , I think it is time to discuss salaries and working condition. • I saw a man who was suspicious looking character crossing the road. • Would you mind repeating the question again? • The merging together of the two rail roads will eliminate the problem. • Washington never wore a wig ; he powdered his own hair , which was actually real, and tied it in a queue .
PARAGRAPH • Why were the other students so cold and unkind? Was it because her long stringy hair hung in her eyes instead of dipping in graceful curls? Was it because she wrote poetry in algebra class and got A’s in Latin without really trying? Shivering, Laura remembered how they would sit at the back of English class, passing notes and whispering. She thought of their identical brown loafers, their plastic purses, their hostile stares as they passed her in the corridors. But she didn’t care. They were clods, the whole lot of them.
PARAGRAPH • Perhaps the only tiresome thing about being an American is that one is continually being told by foreigners what is wrong with this country. Fortunately, most Americans seem rather to enjoy this type of criticism and wisely so because, after all, criticism is a form of homage. I have a history teacher who always criticizes me, so I know what it is like to be criticized. I get B’s but she thinks I should get A’s. One criticizes only that which seems potentially perfect. There is a long history of people criticizing each other
Activity • The reputation of the lion as a man-killer has been greatly exaggerated. By and large it is a peaceable, good-natured beast and does not attack man unless molested. Wolves have a bad reputation too. People mistakenly believe that they run in packs and chase humans. However, a lion is dangerous when aroused or when, as sometimes happens, it has acquired a taste for human flesh. Lions once held up the building of the Uganda Railway for nine months, during which time they killed a great many laborers. There are no wolves in Uganda.
For transmitting effective written or oral messages, Certain principles must be followed. These principles provide guidelines for choice of content and style of presentation adapted to the purpose of the receiver of the message.They are also called the seven Cs of communication. They are:1.Completeness 2.Conciseness 3.Clarity4.Correctness5.Consideration 6.Courtesy 7.Concreteness
CompletenessEvery communication must be complete and adequate.Incomplete messages keep the receiver guessing, create misunderstanding and delay actions.Every person should, therefore, be provided with all the required facts and figures.For example, when factory supervisor instructs workers to produce, he must specify the exact size, shape, quality and cost of the product. Any assumptions behind the messages should also be clarified. While answering a letter, all the questions raised in the letter must be replied.
Conciseness In business communication, you should be brief and be able to say whatever you have to say in fewest possible words without sacrificing the other C qualities. Conciseness is desired because of the following benefits: 1. A concise message saves time and expense for both sender and receiver. 2. Conciseness contributes to emphasis; by eliminating unnecessary words, you let important ideas stand out.3. When combined with a “you-view”, concise messages are inherently more interesting to recipients as they avoid unnecessary information.
Clarity 1. Clarity means getting your message across so the receiver will understand what you are trying to convey. 2. You want that person to interpret your words with the same meaning you have in mind. 3. Accomplishing that goal is difficult because, as you know, individual experiences are never identical, and words have different meanings to different persons. Here are some specific ways to help make your messages clear: 1. Choose short, familiar, conversational words.2. Construct effective sentences and paragraphs.3. Achieve appropriate readability (and listenability).4. Include examples, illustrations, and other visual aids, when desirable.
Correctness 1. The term correctness as applied to business messages means right level of language and accuracy of facts, figures and words.2. If the information is not correctly conveyed, the sender will lose credibility.3. Transmission of incorrect information to superiors will vitiate decision making process. 4. Transmission of incorrect information to outsiders will spoil the public image of the firm.5. To convey correct messages, grammatical errors should also be avoided.6. You should not transmit any message unless you are absolutely sure of its correctness.
Consideration 1. Consideration means that you prepare every message with the recipient in mind and try to put yourself in his or her place.2. Try to visualize your readers (or listeners)—with their desires, problems, circumstances, emotions, and probable reactions to your request. 3. Then handle the matter from their point of view4. This thoughtful consideration is also called "you-attitude," empathy, the human touch, and understanding of human nature. (It does not mean, however, that you should overlook the needs of your organization.)
Consideration 1. Consideration underlies the other six C's of good business communication2. You adapt your language and message content to your receiver's needs when you make your message complete, concise, concrete, clear, courteous, and correct. However, in four specific ways you can indicate you are considerate:• Focus on "you" instead of "I" and "we."• Show reader benefit or interest in reader.• Emphasize positive, pleasant facts.• Apply integrity and ethic
Courtesy •Courteous messages help to strengthen present business friendships, as well as make new friends. • Courtesy stems from sincere you-attitude. • It is not merely politeness with mechanical insertions of "please's" and "thank-you'd." To be courteous, considerate communicators shouldfollow these suggestions regarding tone of thecommunications.• Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative. • Omit expressions that irritate, hurt, or belittle. • Grant and apologize good-naturedly.
Concreteness•Communicating concretely means being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general. • The following guidelines should help you compose concrete, convincing messages:• Use specific facts and figures. • Put action in your verbs.• Choose vivid, image-building words.