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Chapter 6 Power and EnergyPowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 6 Power and Energy

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Energy Facts

- There are different types of energy
- Energy of all types is measured in Joules
- Law of Conservation of Energy – Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, merely changed from one form to another

Alta Physics

Types of Energy(Unit Overview)

- Mechanical Potential Energy
- Energy of Position
- Gravitational
- Elastic

- Energy of Position
- Kinetic Energy
- Energy of Motion
- If it moves it has kinetic energy

- Energy of Motion
- Heat Energy
- Heat is a form of Energy Transfer

- Other Forms of Stored Energy
- Chemical
- Fuels - usually release energy by combustion
- Food – energy released by digestion

- Electrical
- Generated from other forms of energy

- Chemical

Alta Physics

Work

- The Physics definition of work requires a displacement, i.e. an object must be moved in order for work to be done!
- The Applied force which causes the displacement contributes to the work, i.e. in order to contribute to the work, the applied force must be parallel to the displacement.

Alta Physics

Work: A Mathematical Definition

- Work = (Force)(Displacement)
- Units of Work = (Newton)(Meter)
- 1 Newton•Meter = 1 Joule
- A Joule is a unit of Energy and it takes energy to do work and work done on an object either causes it to move (kinetic energy) or is stored (potential energy)

Alta Physics

Sample Problem

- What work is done sliding a 200 Newton box across the room if the frictional force is 160 Newtons and the room is 5 meters wide?
W = Ff • ΔX = (160 N)(5 m)

800 Joules

Alta Physics

Kinetic Energy

- Kinetic Energy is energy of Motion
- Any moving object has kinetic energy
- Dependent on the mass of the object and its velocity.
- Mathematically expressed as:
Ek = ½ mv2

Alta Physics

Sample Problem

- What is the kinetic energy of a car with a mass of 2000 kg moving at 30 m/s?
- Ek = ½ mv2 = (½)(2000 kg)(30 m/s)2
= 900,000 Joules

Alta Physics

Energy of Position:Gravitational Potential Energy

- Occurs due to the accelerating force of gravity
- Is determined by the position of the object in the gravitational field
- Mathematically determined by: Ep = mgh where m is mass, g is the acceleration due to gravity and h is the height above a determined baseline.

Alta Physics

Sample Problem

- What is the potential energy of a 10 kg rock sitting on a cliff 30 meters high? The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s2.
- Ep = mgh = (10 kg)(9.8 m/s2)(30 m)
2940 Joules

Alta Physics

Elastic Potential Energy

- Bungee cords, rubber bands, springs any object that has elasticity can store potential energy.
- Each of these objects has a rest or “zero potential” position
- When work is done to stretch or compress the object to a different position elastic potential energy is stored

Alta Physics

Elastic Potential Energy

- Top picture is “rest position”; x = 0
- This is a point where the elastic potential energy = 0

- Bottom picture is “stretched position”
- Here elastic potential energy is stored in the spring
- Ep = ½ kx2 where k is the “spring constant” in N/m

Alta Physics

Sample Problem

- What is the Elastic potential energy of a car spring that has been stretched 0.5 meters? The spring constant for the car spring is 90 N/m.
- Ep = ½ kx2 = (½)(90 N/m)(0.5 m)2
=11.25 Joules

Alta Physics

Where Does “K” Come From?

- K is measured in Newtons/meter. It is defined as the force required to displace a spring 1 meter. So:
K = F/x

- Often K is determined by hanging a known weight from the spring and measuring how much it is stretched from its rest postion.

Alta Physics

Sample Problem

- A spring is hung from a hook and a 10 Newton weight is hung from the spring. The spring stretches 0.25 meters.
- What is the spring constant?
- If this spring were compressed 0.5 meters, how much energy would be stored?
- If this spring were used to power a projectile launcher, which fires a 0.2 kg projectile, with what velocity would the projectile leave the launcher? Assume 0.5 m compression.

Alta Physics

Solution

K = F/x

K =10 N/0.25 m = 40 N/m

Ep = ½ Kx2

Ep = ½ (40 N/m)(0.5 m)2 = 5 Joules

Ep = Ek = ½ mv2

5 Joules = ½ (0.2 kg)(v2)

V = 7.05 m/s

Alta Physics

Power

- Power = Work/time = Joules/Second
- Mathematically there are two formulas for Power:

or since

then

Alta Physics

Sample Problem

- What power is developed by a 55 kg person who does 20 chin ups, h = 3 m, in 45 seconds?
- P= w/t = FΔd/t = mgh/t
(20(55 kg)(9.8 m/s2)(3 m))/45 sec

= 718.6 Watts

Alta Physics

Problem Types

- Work
- Work at an angle
- Kinetic Energy
- Gravitational Potential
- Elastic Potential
- Conservation
- Power

Alta Physics

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