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Tissues of the Body. From Cells to Organ Systems. Cells combine to form tissues, and tissues combine to form organs. Tissues are groups of cells closely associated that have a similar structure & perform a related function. Cells combine to form 4 primary tissues

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slide2

FromCellstoOrganSystems

Cells combine to form tissues, and tissues combine to form organs

Tissues are groups of cells closely associated that have a similar structure

& perform a related function

  • Cells combine to form 4 primary tissues
  • *Epithelial *Nervous
    • *Connective *Muscle
slide4
Epithelial Tissue Locations:

Covers the body

Lines the cavities, tubes, ducts and blood vessels inside the body

Covers the organs inside body cavities

Epithelial Tissue Functions:

Protection from physical & chemical injury,

Protection against microbial invasion,

Contains receptors which respond to stimuli,

Filters, secretes & reabsorbs materials and

Secretes serous fluids to lubricate structures.

Epithelial Tissue

slide5

Epithelial Tissue

  • Two types:
    • membranous epithelia form the coverings or linings of organs
    • glandular epithelia form exocrine and endocrine glands
  • Sheets of cells with specialized contacts & cell junctions
    • Basal lamina: protein scaffolding secreted by epithelial cells
    • Basement membrane: reticular fibers (crossed collagen network) that supports epithelium--really associated connective tissue
slide6
Connective tissue support

Nutrients from capillaries in underlying connective tissue

Nerves pass through

Easily regenerates

Different cell shapes & arrangements

Epithelial Tissue

slide7
Simple: just one layer or cell shape

Stratified: multiple layers and cell shapes

Classes of Epithelia

slide8

Simple Epithelia

TYPE CELL SHAPE EXAMPLE

SquamousSquashed

CuboidalCubed

ColumnarColumns

Pseudo-stratified

Flat cells

give rise to

columns

Endothelium (lines blood vessels), mesothelium (serous lining of celom)

Walls of glands

Lining of gut tube; sometimes with cilia like lining of uterine tube

With cilia in respiratory tubes to move mucous & particles out of the lungs

slide9
SimpleSquamous

One cell thick

Forms solid layer of cells which line blood vessels, body cavities & cover organs in body cavities

Lubrication

Squamous Epithelia

  • StratifiedSquamous
    • Multiple layers
    • Forms epidermis (Skin) lining of the mouth
    • Lubrication & protection
slide10
SimpleCuboidal

One cell thick, roughly cube shaped

Lines ovaries, kidneys, thyroid glands, where secretion & absorption take place

Cuboidal Epithelia

  • Stratified Cuboidal
    • In multiple layers w/one layer attached to basement membrane & one w/free edge
    • Mammary & sweat glands
    • Secretion, absorption & protection
slide11
Simple Columnar

One cell thick column shaped (long & narrow)

Line digestive tract where re-absorption & secretion occurs.

Columnar Epithelia

  • Stratified Columnar
    • Stacked nucleus on top of nucleus
    • Lines vas deferans, male urethra
    • Gives support and some movement.
slide12

Columnar Epithelia

  • Pseudostratified
    • gives the appearance of more than one layer of columnar epithelial cells
    • Every cell is attached to the basement membrane
    • Lines the trachea, fallopian tubes
    • movement
slide13

Transitional Epithelia

  • Transitional
    • Several layers of epithelial cells
    • Forms tissue that must stretch like the bladder
    • Stretches, protects against seepage
slide14

Glandular Epithelia

  • Glandular
    • A gland consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product.
    • Endocrine: secretions diffuse directly into the blood vessels. Ex.– thyroid, adrenals, pituitary
    • Exocrine: secretions empty through the ducts to the epithelial surface. Ex.- sweat, oil
slide17
Muscle Tissue:

Associated with the bones of the skeleton, the heart and in the walls of the hollow organs of the body.

Muscle Tissue Functions:

Movement & Locomotion

Maintains posture

Produces heat

Facial expressions

Pumps blood

Peristalsis

Muscle Tissue

slide18

Muscle Tissue

  • Consists of specialized cells that contract when stimulated
  • The body has three types of muscle tissue:
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth muscle
slide19

Muscle Tissue

  • Cardiac (involuntary) HEART
  • Smooth (involuntary) ORGANS
  • Skeletal (voluntary) BONES

Cardiac Muscle

Smooth Muscle

Skeletal Muscle

connective tissue
Connective Tissue

Connective tissue location:

Most abundant & widely distributed tissue

Connective tissue has non-living extra-cellular material (matrix between its cells

Connective Tissue Functions:

Connects, binds and supports structures,

Tendons, ligaments, etc.

Protects & cushions organs and tissues,

Insulates (fat) and

Transports substances (blood).

slide21

Connective Tissue

  • Major classes:
    • Bone
    • Cartilage
    • Loose
    • Dense
    • Blood
  • All connective tissues consist of two basic components:
    • Living cells
    • Extracellular matrix
slide22
Fibers

Collagen gives structure

Reticular fibers (crossed collagen) gives order

Elastin gives elasticity

Ground substance

Jelly-like material made of sugar-protein molecules (proteoglycans)

Allows connective tissue to retain water and serve as support and protection of organs

Extracellular Matrix

slide23

Type: Loose, adipose

Type: Loose, areolar

slide24

Loose Fibrous

  • Contains elastin
  • Nourishes & stretches
    • Provides blood vessels to skin
    • Fills muscle gaps
  • Adipose
  • Stores energy (fat) & insulates
  • Mostly under the skin
  • Areolar
  • Wraps the organs
  • Cushions & protects
slide25
Dense Fibrous

Collagen is the main matrix element

Thick fibers running in many planes

Dermis, fibrous capsules around organs

Aligned parallel fibers that resists tension

Tendon, ligaments

Dense Fibrous

slide26

Specialized connective tissue

  • Perform specific functions essential to homeostasis
  • The body contains three types of specialized connective tissue:
        • Bone
        • Cartilage
        • Blood
slide27

Osseous

  • Bone
      • Consists of bone cells (osteocytes) and a calcified cartilage matrix
      • Two types of bone tissue exist: spongy and compact
  • Tree ring-like appearance
  • Supports & protects
  • Mineral storage
  • Fat storage
  • Blood cell production
slide28

Cartilage

  • Supports while providing flexibility
  • Hyaline cartilage absorbs compression between bones in joints (bone ends)
    • Most abundant type of cartilage found in the body
  • Fibrocartilageforms cushion like disks between the vertebra
  • The ears and nose are more flexible and are elastic cartilage
slide29

Blood

  • Blood
      • Red & white blood cells
      • Platelets
      • Plasma
      • Regulates temperature
      • Transportation system
slide30
Nervous Tissue:

Main component of the nervous system ie., brain, spinal cord & nerves.

Nervous Tissue Functions:

Regulates & controls body functions

Generates & transmits nerve impulses

Supports, insulates and protects impulse generating neurons.

Nervous Tissue

slide31

Nervous Tissue

  • Contains specialized cells that conduct impulses
  • Conducting cells, called neurons, transmit impulses from one region of the body to another.
  • Nonconducting cells, neuroglia, are a type of nervous system connective tissue.