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Parkinson’s Disease & Sleep Disorders The Village Sleep Lab Accredited By the American Academy of Sleep Medicine PowerPoint Presentation
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Parkinson’s Disease & Sleep Disorders The Village Sleep Lab Accredited By the American Academy of Sleep Medicine

Parkinson’s Disease & Sleep Disorders The Village Sleep Lab Accredited By the American Academy of Sleep Medicine

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Parkinson’s Disease & Sleep Disorders The Village Sleep Lab Accredited By the American Academy of Sleep Medicine

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  1. Parkinson’s Disease& Sleep DisordersThe Village Sleep LabAccredited By theAmerican Academy of Sleep Medicine Juan A Albino MD Board Certified in Sleep Medicine 751-4955 April, 2009

  2. Thank You !!! • Bill Gray, Parkinson’s Support Group • Heather Ellington, Office Manager • Jim Grazis, Sleep Technologist • Melyssa Rivera, Sleep Technologist • Miyoshi Scott, Nurse • AWAKE Group of The Villages • Lois Brach, Coordinator

  3. Common Sleep Disorders • Insomnia: wants to sleep but cannot • Sleep Deprivation: does not want to sleep but can; problem of sleep quantity • Sleep Apnea: sleepy during day, snores (throat obstruction) problem of sleep quality • Restless Legs Sydrome: leg discomfort, relieved by movement, symptoms day and night • Parasomnias: abnormal sleep behaviors • Circadian Rhythm Disorders: sleep clock not in harmony with the environment

  4. Good Sleep Habits • Regular times for sleeping and awakening • Maintain bedroom dark, quiet, cool • Use bed only for sleep and sex • Avoid late daytime naps • Avoid at night: alcohol, caffeine, nicotine • Sleep around 7 to 8 hours every night • Prudent exercise and eating • Avoid stressful situations at bednight • Test: spontaneous bedtime and rise time

  5. Parkinson’s & Sleep Problems • Insomnia • Disruptions during Sleep • Daytime Sleepiness

  6. Parkinson’s & Insomnia • Primary Insomnia: present before PD • Insomnia due to Parkinson’s: improves with better treatment of PD • Depression: before or after Parkinson’s • Urge to urinate: bladder, prostate, etc. • Medications: some antidepressants, selegiline (Deprenyl, Eldeprl) • Sleep apnea can cause insomnia

  7. Insomnia Due to Parkinson’s: Causes • Lack of muscle and mental relaxation • Stiffness, restlessness, and difficulty of moving into comfortable positions • Tremor can be bothersome • Medications wear off during the night • Insufficient medications during the night

  8. Insomnia Due to Parkinson’s • Stage 1: Difficulty falling asleep: need to take PD meds 1 to 3 hours before bedtime • Stage 2: Waking up early part of night: take long acting medicine at bedtime • Stage 3: Waking up latter part of the night : take medicine when wake up

  9. Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) • Leg discomfort, worse at night, relieved by movement, affects 5-10% of population • Familial, begins in childhood • Associated with iron deficiency, drugs, Periodic Limb Movement Disorder, PLMD • Easily treatable with medicines • Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation

  10. Treatment of RLS/PLMD • Restless Legs Syndrome is diagnosed by history: exclude leg cramps • Periodic Leg Movement Disorder is diagnosed by a sleep study • Treatment is the same and effective • Luckily the same medicines to treat PD: Mirapex and Requip, also sedatives, and narcotics, anti-seizure drugs

  11. Frequent Urination • Causes: light sleep, bladder problem, prostate problem, drugs, infections, other • Light sleep: PD, Sleep Apnea, PLMD • Consider urological evaluation • Avoid too much fluids, salt, diuretics, alcohol, caffeine • Control Parkinson’s better; do sleep study • Medicines for bladder or prostate

  12. Depression and Anxiety • Anxiety: difficulty going to sleep, worries • Depression: difficulty going or staying asleep, or waking up early; hopeless, helpless, no fun • Depression: before or after Parkinson’s; problem recognizing, admitting to illness • Drugs are effective in treating both • Beware: anti-anxiety drugs & sleepiness; anti-depressants & insomnia

  13. Drugs and Insomnia • Anti-depressants: Prozac, Celexa, Zoloft, Paxil, take in the morning or add sedating one at night: trazodone • Anti-Parkinson’s: Selegiline • Drugs for emphysema or COPD • Coffee, alcohol, tobacco

  14. Primary Insomnia: Before Parkinson’s • Insomnia: inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, wakes up early, with daytime impairment • Acute Insomnia (<4 weeks): stress, illness • Sleep medicines work well in acute stage • Chronic Insomnia: >4 weeks, often years • Treat basic problem: >60% psychological • Psychotherapy and behavioral therapy better than medicines, not easy to treat • Psychologists, Psychiatrists, PCP

  15. Treatment of Chronic Insomnia • Sleep Habits: avoid coffee & alcohol, sleep in a quiet, dark, cool room, eat lightly before bed regular sleep hours, avoid day naps, exercise • Restriction: only go to bed when ready to sleep, if in bed sleep 90% of the time; out of bed and bedroom if awake over 20 min • Stimulus control: simple bedroom furniture and bedroom strictly for sleep • Proper perspective: good if adequate sleep over 75% of the time, don’t exaggerate the problem

  16. Treatment of Chronic Insomnia: Sleeping Pills • Anti-histamines: available over the counter Benadryl (diphenhydramine), Tylenol PM • Anti-depressants: trazodone • Sedatives: temazepam (Restoril) • Specific drugs: Ambien (generic: zolpidem), Ambien CR (not generic), Lunesta • Natural Substances: melatonin, valerian root, chamomile tea, lavender, kava, jazmine scent, little to no proof that they help, side effects

  17. Pseudo-Sleepiness • Low blood pressure can mimic sleepiness • Parkinson’s and drugs to treat it can lead to low BP, especially in the morning • Clue: patient feels faint when standing up • May lose consciousness and mistakenly thought to be asleep • Clue: after breakfast • Confirm: take blood pressure lying down, sitting, and standing

  18. Disruptions During the Night • REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: acting out dreams, associated with PD • Hallucinations and Delusions at Night: patient is awake not asleep • Confusion: Sundowning, advanced Parkinson’s dementia, reversed day/night cycle (wandering at night) • Sleep Apnea and restless sleep

  19. Disruptions During the Night • Often disruptive to family • Important cause of institutionalization • Difficult to distinguish among: REM Sleep Behavior Disorder, Sleep Apnea, Hallucinations, Delusions, Nightmares • Sleep study often indicated • Medicines control REM Sleep Behavior Disorder, and Hallucinations • Familiar surroundings, lighting for confusion

  20. Day Time Sleepiness • Insomnia due to Parkinson’s: uncontrolled disease at night leads to sleep deprivation then anti-PD drugs in the morning relax the patient • Anti-PD Drugs: all may cause sleepiness • Other Drugs: sedatives, anti-depressants • Restless Legs Syndrome / Periodic Leg Movement Disorder: sleep deprivation • Sleep Apnea leads to sleep fragmentation

  21. Sleep Apnea: Risk Factors • Affects: 4 to 5% of population: common • Family history, Sleep maintenance insomnia • Obesity: 80 % of sleep apnea patients; central (visceral, apples) obesity • Increasing age, Male gender • Large tonsils / adenoids in children • Small mandible, large neck • Elderly & women: little snoring & not obese

  22. Sleep Apnea: Consequences • Night: snoring, stops breathing snorting, gasping, bed partner worries • Day: sleepy, tired, depressed, irritable, impotent, forgets, ? few complaints • Accidents: work, home, motor vehicle • Hypertension, Heart Failure, Heart Attacks, Higher death rates • Strokes, Atrial Fibrillation • Promotes Obesity and Diabetes

  23. Obstructive Sleep Apnea • What is OSA? • NO AIRFLOW DESPITE RESPIRATORY EFFORT • NORMALSNORINGSLEEP APNEA

  24. Sleep Apnea: Treatment • Behavioral: Weight Loss, Sleep Position (Sleep on side, head raised), Oxygen, Avoid sedatives • CPAP: proven therapy, needs motivation: widely available, 70%: patients adapt well • Surgery: tracheostomy, tonsillectomy, pull forth mandible or tongue • Bariatric Surgery: banding, bypass (Bob Eisenhauer 259-1485; Lewis Jones 753-3459) • Dental appliances: also pull forth mandible or tongue; expertise necessary

  25. Treatment Options: CPAP Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: CPAP Keeps airway open 100% effective, simple CPAP therapy

  26. Summary: Sleep Apnea • Very common and dangerous • Easily diagnosed and treated • Benefits of treatment:sleep better at night, also • Feel better during the day: less sleepiness and fatigue, more energy, less accidents • Reduce risk factor for heart disease and strokes • Control better: obesity, diabetes, hypertension • Bed partner sleeps better: less noise and less worry (but dog is scared of CPAP)

  27. Websites • The Movement Disorder Society: www.wemove.org • The American Academy of Neurology: www.thebrainmatters.com • American Sleep Apnea Association: www.sleepapnea.org • Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation: www.rls.org • National Sleep Foundation: www.sleepfoundation.org • The Village Sleep Lab: www.villagesleeplab.com • American Academy of Sleep Medicine: www.sleepeducation.com

  28. Books • The Parkinson’s Disease Treatment Book by J. Eric Ahlskog, Mayo Clinic • The Promise of Sleep by William Dement • Sleeping Well by Michael Thorpy • No More Sleepless Nights by Peter Hauri • A Woman’s Guide to Sleep Disorders by Meir H. Kryger • Restless LegsSyndromeby Robert H. Yoakum • Say Good Night to Insomnia by Gregg D. Jacobs