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Home Heating. More than just staying warm…. Types of Home Heating Fuel Sources. Propane (LP) Natural Gas Fuel Oil Wood Coal Kerosene Pellets Outdoor wood boilers Electric. Combustion Appliance Maintenance. Maintain each heating season Furnaces Gas water heaters

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home heating

Home Heating

More than just staying warm…

types of home heating fuel sources
Types of Home Heating Fuel Sources

Propane (LP)

Natural Gas

Fuel Oil





Outdoor wood boilers


combustion appliance maintenance
Combustion Appliance Maintenance
  • Maintain each heating season
    • Furnaces
    • Gas water heaters
    • Check gas stoves, gas fireplaces
  • Use care when operating combustion appliances indoors
  • Make sure burner is properly adjusted and has good ventilation
  • Ensure condensate pump works, unblocked
backdrafting spillage
  • Appliance not vented properly
    • Spills or back drafts into living area
  • Most common test utilizes mirror, as byproducts of combustion contain water vapor, cause mirror to fog
  • Create worst-case conditions:

Negative Pressure

    • Close all exterior doors and windows
    • Activate all the exhaust fans
    • Turn on clothes dryers
    • Turn on ignite fireplaces
silent killer carbon monoxide co
Silent Killer: Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • You CAN’T
            • See it
            • Smell it, or
            • Taste it…but it can KILL in minutes!
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced whenever any fuel such as gas, oil, kerosene, wood, or charcoal is burned
co levels general guidelines
CO Levels (General Guidelines)

0-9 ppm No health risk

35-50 ppm Problems with long term exposure – 8 hrs chronic symptoms of headaches, nausea, tired


50-70 ppm Exposure - 2-3 hrs Flu like symptoms, headache, nausea

70-200 ppm Exposure - 1 hr Dizziness, fatigue, vomiting

200-800 ppm Minutes of exposure can cause unconsciousness, brain damage, DEATH

how co attacks
How CO attacks…
  • Red blood cells prefer CO to oxygen
  • If there is enough CO in air, CO replaces oxygen in blood
  • This blocks oxygen from getting into body, damaging tissues and potentially causing death
common sources of co
Common Sources of CO
  • Blocked flue, chimney, vent pipes
  • Rusted/cracked furnace heat exchanger
  • Idling engine in attached garage
  • Backdrafting, spillage
  • Maladjusted fuel-fired space heater
  • Unvented use of BBQ/charcoal indoors
  • Gas stoves and ranges, water heaters
  • Outdoor use combustion

exhaust near vent/window

not just co nitrogen dioxide no 2
Not Just CO—Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

Colorless, tasteless, with sharp odor

Deep lung irritant

Eye, nose, respiratory and throat irritation

Shortness of breath, narrow airways in asthmatics

More respiratory illness (cold/flu)

Lung damage/disease with

long exposure

particulate matter pm
Particulate Matter (PM)
  • Eye, nose, throat, lung irritation
    • Bronchitis, allergies, asthma, respiratory and ear infections, cardiovascular conditions…
  • Sooting from appliances
  • Ghosting on walls/ceiling
  • Candles can create problems
  • Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
  • What is adhered to particle?
sulfur dioxide
Sulfur Dioxide
  • Can work in tandem with PM
  • Eye, nose, throat, respiratory tract irritation
    • Respiratory infections, bronchitis
  • High levels can cause airways to narrow
  • Asthmatics are especially susceptible
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pahs
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Organic particles and gases

Lung, stomach, bladder, skin cancers

Nose, throat, eye irritation

carbon dioxide co 2
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • Changes blood pH levels
  • Increases respiration rate
  • Decreases ability to perform strenuous exercise
  • Postulated increases for long-term exposure
    • Respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders
water vapor
Water Vapor

Major product of combustion

Must vent or pump to exterior

Not a pollutant but can cause moisture issues

navajo coal combustion and respiratory health
Navajo Coal Combustion and Respiratory Health

High rates of respiratory illness

Weather patterns include inversions

Coal burning power plants

Poorly maintained stoves

Coal burned in stoves not designed for coal

High levels of PM2.5 measured in homes

Repairs to existing stoves could improve IAQ

Perceptions can lead to incorrect conclusions

woodburning stoves and respiratory illness
WoodburningStoves and Respiratory Illness

Children in homes with wood stoves used for cooking have five-fold increase in hospitalizations

High PM readings found in homes with children needing hospitalizations

Encourage improvements in stoves and home ventilation systems

wood stove i nterventions
Wood Stove Interventions

Wood stove changeouts (ambient and indoor)

Filtration units (indoor)

Best-burn practices (ambient and indoor).

Wood banks (ambient)

wood stove changeout program a natural experiment
Wood Stove Changeout Program: A Natural Experiment

Prospective multi-year study to assess changes in wood smoke PM2.5 and impact on health of school children following intervention

  • Monitor changes in ambient PM2.5
  • Monitor changes in school indoor PM2.5
  • Evaluate change in residential indoor PM2.5 following changeout
  • Track changes in reporting of symptoms and illness-related absences among students

Before Changeout




Start Sampling:

10/25/06 @ 14:00

End Sampling:

10/26/06 @ 14:00

Avg = 131.8 μg/m3

how does a wood stove changeout impact indoor air quality
How does a wood stove changeoutimpact indoor air quality?

Old stove

40-60 g smoke/hr

EPA-certified stove

2-5 g smoke/hr

2006 2007 libby residential pm 2 5 sampling program
2006/2007 Libby Residential PM2.5 Sampling Program
  • Sampling focused on 20 homes containing wood stoves
  • 24-hour PM2.5 sampling
    • Pre-changeout period (Oct/Nov 2006)
    • Post-changeout (Dec 2006 – Feb 2007)
    • Goal of program to evaluate impact of “intervention” on indoor air quality within home
libby pm 2 5 mass results pre and post stove change out
Libby PM2.5 Mass Results – Pre and Post Stove Change-out

Pre-changeout avg PM2.5: 53.4 μg/m3

Post-changeout avg PM2.5: 15.0 μg/m3

results of multi winter residential study
Results of Multi-Winter Residential Study

Overall reductions following wood stove changeoutobserved in 16 of 21 homes

nez perce wood stove changeout
Nez Perce Wood Stove Changeout

Conducted during winters of 2006/2007, 2007/2008, and 2008/2009

Kamiah and Lapwai, Idaho on Nez Perce Reservation

16 homes

nez perce wood stove changeout pm 2 5 mass results
Nez Perce Wood Stove Changeout PM2.5 Mass Results

~278% PM2.5


Pre-changeout avg PM2.5: 43.1 μg/m3

Post-changeout avg PM2.5: 126.0 μg/m3

nez perce wood stove changeout pm 2 5 mass results1
Nez Perce Wood Stove Changeout PM2.5 Mass Results

~278% PM2.5


Pre-changeout avg PM2.5: 43.1 μg/m3

Post-changeout avg PM2.5: 126.0 μg/m3

importance of training
Importance of Training

PM2.5 Mass (µg/m3) Measured in Homes Following Outreach/Education.

Ward, T.J., Boulafentis, J., Simpson, J., Hester, C., Moliga, T., Warden, K., and Noonan, C.W., 2011. Results of the Nez Perce woodstove changeout program, Science of the Total Environment, 409, 664-670.

wood stove changeouts
Wood Stove Changeouts
  • Effective in reducing ambient PM2.5
  • Expensive (~$1500 - $4500)
  • Learning curve
  • Results can be variable for indoor air
a randomized trial for indoor smoke artis
A Randomized Trial for Indoor Smoke (ARTIS)

5-year, NIEHS-funded study

Assessing impacts on quality of life among asthmatic children following interventions that reduce in-home wood smoke PM exposures

health outcome measures
Health Outcome Measures
  • PAQoL
  • Peak flow
  • Symptoms
  • eNO
  • Biol. samples
    • EBC
    • Urine
use of best burn p ractices
Use of Best-Burn Practices

Education coupled with use of inexpensive tools

Burn at proper temperatures (thermometer)

270-460 °F is optimal.

use of best burn practices cont
Use of Best-Burn Practices (cont.)

Burn dry, seasoned wood (moisture meter)

<20% moisture is optimal

use of best burn practices cont1
Use of Best-Burn Practices (cont.)
  • Don’t burn trash, etc.
  • Stove maintenance (ash cleaning, clean out chimneys, etc)

EPA Burn Wise Program: http://www.epa.gov/burnwise/

summary change outs
Summary—Change Outs

Wood stoves a significant source of PM2.5 in both ambient and indoor environments

Wood stove changeouts can be effective in reducing ambient wintertime PM2.5–results are more variable indoors

Changeouts are expensive

Training and education on new stoves essential

summary filtration units
Summary—Filtration Units

Filtration units are consistently effective in improving indoor air in homes with wood stoves

Improves indoor air quality by ~60% but does nothing for outdoors

Electricity costs are a concern, and units can be noisy

summary burning practices
Summary—Burning Practices

Best-burn practices are inexpensive and sustainable strategies

Education, outreach, and training are critical

summary other considerations
Summary—Other Considerations

Each intervention should be culturally and regionally appropriate

Interventions need to be sustainable

Can we replace wood stoves

Passive solar heating