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Chapter 16.1. Functions of Proteins. SWBAT: Classify proteins by their functions in the cells. Proteins. Proteins are polymers of amino acids chemically bonded to each other All proteins in humans are made up from 20 different amino acids Protein Subclasses are:

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chapter 16 1

Chapter 16.1

Functions of Proteins

SWBAT: Classify proteins by their functions in the cells

proteins
Proteins

Proteins are polymers of amino acids chemically bonded to each other

All proteins in humans are made up from 20 different amino acids

Protein Subclasses are:

  • structural, contractile, transport, hormones, enzymes, immunoprotein, AA storage

Identification: many end with –in, -en, -ase

chapter 16 2

Chapter 16.2

Amino Acids

SWBAT: know the structure of an amino acid and be familiar with the classification of amino acids

anatomy of an amino acid
Anatomy of an Amino Acid
  • AA are all the same with regard to
  • Central carbon
  • Amino group
  • Carboxyl group
  • Hydrogen
  • Differ with regard to the R-side chain
amino acids
Amino Acids

NH3+

COO-

Remember that amines are bases and can accept a proton

Remember that carboxylic acids are acids and can lose a proton

This form of the amino acid is called a zwitterion…which has no net charge (one positive and one negative).

At normal body pH (~7.4) the functional groups are

amino acid r group
Amino Acid (R) Group

Side Chain (R) Group can be:

Alkyl

Hydroxyl

Thiol

Amino

Carboxyl

Aromatic

Cyclical

Amide

slide8

Classification of Amino Acids

Polar

Amino Acid

Non-polar

Neutral

(not charged)

Positively charged

(Basic)

Charged

Negatively charged

(Acidic)

nonpolar amino acids
Nonpolar Amino Acids

All are nonpolar amino acids

R can be:

  • Alkyl side chain
  • Aromatic side chain
polar amino acids
Polar Amino Acids
  • R can be:
  • Hydroxyl (-OH)
  • Thiol (-SH)
  • Amide (-CONH2)

All can H-bond with water

acidic amino acids
Acidic Amino Acids
  • R will be:
  • Carboxylic acid (-COOH)

Can ionize as a weak acid

basic amino acids
Basic Amino Acids

R group will contain:

an amino group that ionizes as a weak base

All are polar amino acids…

amino acid stereoisomers
Amino Acid Stereoisomers
  • All of the alpha amino acids (except glycine) are chiral – can exist as D or L enantiomers
  • Fisher projections with –COOH at the top and (R) group at bottom
  • L isomer – NH2 group on left
  • D isomer – NH2 group on right

L-serine

D-serine

In biological systems, only L amino acids are in proteins

homework
Homework:

pg 534 16.1 – 16.2pg 537 16.3 – 16.12