Schema Theory. Evaluate schema theory with reference to relevant research studies. What is a schema?. Definition : a cognitive structure that provides a framework for organising information about the world, events, people and actions.
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Schema Theory Evaluate schema theory with reference to relevant research studies
What is a schema? • Definition: a cognitive structure that provides a framework for organising information about the world, events, people and actions. • Mr. Dixon’s Explanation: it’s as if you have a filing cabinet in your mind and the schema’s are the files that you put in the filing cabinet.
Types of Schema • Scripts – are understandings of sequences of events, for example going to a restaurant, typical movie plots or a formal celebration. • Self-schemas – organise information we have about ourselves. • Social schemas – information about groups of people. Stereotypes are an example of a social schema.
Outline of schema theory: • Functions of schemas: • Organise information in our memory • Can be activated to increase information processing-efficiency • Enable the generation of expectations about objects, events and people • Regulate behaviour • Relatively stable and resistant to change • They can lead to distortions (mistakes) when: • Settings are unfamiliar • The wrong schemas are activated
Important Empirical Research • Bartlett: active reconstruction of memory • Gauld and Stephenson: replication of Bartlett • Bransford and Johnson: activation of schemas and information processing • Bower: scripts and information processing