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Chapter 5. Macromolecules. Macromolecules. Smaller organic molecules join together to form larger molecules macromolecules 4 major classes of macromolecules: carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids. Polymers. Long molecules built by linking chain of repeating smaller units

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macromolecules
Macromolecules
  • Smaller organic molecules join together to form larger molecules
    • macromolecules
  • 4 major classes of macromolecules:
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
polymers
Polymers
  • Long molecules built by linking chain of repeating smaller units
    • polymers
    • monomers = repeated small units
    • covalent bonds
how to build a polymer
How to build a polymer
  • Condensation reaction
    • dehydration synthesis
    • joins monomers by “taking” H2O out
      • 1 monomer provides OH
      • the other monomer provides H
      • together these form H2O
    • requires energy & enzymes
how to break down a polymer
How to break down a polymer
  • Hydrolysis
    • use H2O to break apart monomers
      • reverse of condensation reaction
      • H2O is split into H and OH
      • H & OH group attach where the covalent bond used to be
    • ex: digestion is hydrolysis
so what s all this talk about carbs

So what’s all this talk about carbs?

Atkin’s Diet

South Beach Diet

carbohydrates1
Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O carbo - hydr - ate

CH2O

(CH2O)x C6H12O6

  • Function:
    • energy u energy storage
    • raw materials u structural materials
  • Monomer: sugars
  • ex: sugars & starches
sugars
Sugars
  • Most names for sugars end in -ose
  • Classified by number of carbons
    • 6C = hexose (glucose)
    • 5C = pentose (fructose, ribose)
    • 3C = triose (glyceraldehyde)
slide10

What functional groups?

carbonyl

aldehyde

ketone

hydroxyl

sugar structure
Sugar structure
  • 5C & 6C sugars form rings in aqueous solutions
    • in cells!

Carbons are numbered

numbered carbons
Numbered carbons

C

6'

C

O

5'

C

C

4'

1'

C

C

3'

2'

simple complex sugars
Simple & complex sugars
  • Monosaccharides
    • simple 1 monomer sugars
    • glucose
  • Disaccharides
    • 2 monomers
    • sucrose
  • Polysaccharides
    • large polymers
    • starch
building sugars
Building sugars
  • Dehydration synthesis

monosaccharides

disaccharide

|

glucose

|

glucose

|

maltose

glycosidic linkage

building sugars1
Building sugars
  • Dehydration synthesis

monosaccharides

disaccharide

|

glucose

|

fructose

|

sucrose

glycosidic linkage

structural isomers

polysaccharides
Polysaccharides
  • Polymers of sugars
    • costs little energy to build
    • easily reversible = release energy
  • Function:
    • energy storage
      • starch (plants)
      • glycogen (animals)
    • building materials = structure
      • cellulose (plants)
      • chitin (arthropods & fungi)
polysaccharide diversity
Polysaccharide diversity
  • Molecular structure determines function
  • isomers of glucose
  • How does structure influence function…
cellulose
Cellulose
  • Most abundant organic compound on Earth
glycemic index
Glycemic index
  • Which food will get into your blood more quickly?
    • apple
    • rice cakes
    • corn flakes
    • bagel
    • peanut M&M
glycemic index1
Glycemic index
  • Ranking of carbohydrates based on their immediate effect on blood glucose (blood sugar) levels
  • Carbohydrate foods that breakdown quickly during digestion have the highest glycemic indices. Their blood sugar response is fast & high.
glycemic index2
Glycemic index
  • Which food will get into your blood more quickly?
    • apple 36
    • rice cakes 82
    • corn flakes 84
    • bagel 72
    • peanut M&M 33
let s build some carbohydrates
Let’s build some

Carbohydrates!