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Bio 101: Biological Principles. Natasha Anwar. Lecture 1 Introduction. The course Biology – the science of life Scientific Method. The Course. Core – 4 units 30 lectures – Tues & Thurs, 17.30 – 18.45 Fri, 17.30 – 18.20 Sayeed Saigol Auditorium 11 topics

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lecture 1 introduction
Lecture 1Introduction
  • The course
  • Biology – the science of life
  • Scientific Method
the course
The Course
  • Core – 4 units
  • 30 lectures – Tues & Thurs, 17.30 – 18.45

Fri, 17.30 – 18.20

  • Sayeed Saigol Auditorium
  • 11 topics
  • Final grade will be calculated as follows:

Quizzes 25%

Assignments 5%

Mid-term exam 25%

Term paper 10%

Final Exam 35%

student assessment
Student Assessment

Attendance Understanding

  • Quizzes – random, 15 min test
  • Assignments – twice a week, 3 students selected at random to present their assignment.
  • Mid-term exam – 1 hr, short answer questions.
  • Term Paper
  • Final Exam – 3 hr, short essay questions
plagiarize
Plagiarize

“To use another persons idea or part of their work and pretend that it is your own”,

Cambridge International Dictionary of English

biology the science of life
Biology – the science of life
  • bios, life; logos, knowledge
  • The study of living organisms, and the biological processes that enable them to function and survive.
reductionist principle
Reductionist Principle
  • The study of life is complex so broken down into compartments
  • Within a cell
  • Among cells in an organ
  • Among the organ systems in an organism
  • Between organisms and the environment
  • Among individuals in a population
  • Between species

Chemicals

Cells

Tissues

Organs

Systems

Organism

Population

Community

Ecosystem

slide8
Anatomy

Gross structure

Microbiology

Virology

Bacteriology

Mycology

Physiology

gross function

Biology

Cell biology

cells

Botany

plants

Biochemistry

/Molecular Biology

molecules

Zoology

animals

Genetics

Inheritance

living organisms
Are capable of :-

Growth and development

Metabolism

Homeostatis

Movement

Detect and react to stimuli

Reproduction

Composed of cells

Contain DNA

Adaptation and evolution

Living Organisms
the scientific method
The Scientific Method

Law

Interpretation

theory

results

controlled experiments

accept

modify

Hypothesis

reject

qualitative

quantitative

data

Observation

Biological Science, 3rd Edition

pp 951

Facts

example

Example

Observation: There are always so many flies at the butchers shop, especially around rotting meat

example13
Example

Question: Where do flies in the shop come from, and does rotting meat produce or turn into the flies?

Hypothesis: Rotten meat dose not turn into flies. Only flies can make more flies.

Prediction: If meat cannot make more flies, rotting meat sealed into a container should not produce flies or maggots.

example14
Example

Experimental Testing:

  • Wide mouth jars each containing a piece of meat opened to various degrees.
  • Control group – a jar of meat set out without a lid.
  • Experimental groups – one group of jars were sealed with lids another group with gauze.
  • Replication – several jars were included in each group.
  • Presence and absence of flies and maggots seen in each jar were recorded.
example15
Example

Data:

  • In control group – flies entered jar, maggots seen later and then more flies seen on the meat.
  • In gauze covered jars – no flies in the jar, but on and around the gauze. Later maggots seen on the meat.
  • In the sealed jars – no maggots or flies seen on the meat.
example16
Example

Conclusion:

  • Only flies can make more flies.
  • Uncovered jars flies came and laid eggs on the meat. Maggots hatched from the eggs and grew into adult flies.
  • Adult flies laid eggs on the gauze, eggs or maggots dropped through gauze onto meat.
incomplete research
Incomplete Research
  • An example of a scientific conclusions based on insufficient scientific method occurred in the field of breast cancer research.
  • Breast cancer is caused when normal cells change and produce a tumour. In a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine (336, 1269 (1997)), scientists from Norway studied the incidence of breast cancer in 25,624 women.
  • Participants gave details about their height, weight, diets, and exercise habits. The results showed an over all reduction of breast cancer by 37% for women who exercise regularly. Women who are lean and exercise at least 4 hrs per week showed the lowest incidence.
does exercise prevent breast cancer
Does Exercise Prevent Breast Cancer?
  • Many newspapers picked up on the data with headlines stating that exercise prevents cancer
  • An editorial in the same journal put the results in proper perspective.
  • Women who exercise regularly have higher levels of education and income, smoke less, drink less alcohol, and consume fewer calories and less fat.
  • Establishing a casual pathway between reduced breast cancer and physical activity will require exploration for biologic mechanisms and confirmation with clinical experiments.
quote
Quote:

“ The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its

solution, which may mainly be a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science ”

Albert Einstein

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