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  1. Child welfare 2000

  2. Measure of child welfare • Child enrollment in school • Primary • Secondary • Child health • Mortality • Morbidity • Child nutrition • Child labor

  3. Child labor

  4. Child Immunization

  5. Immunization

  6. Primary schooling

  7. Female children, primary schooling

  8. Secondary schooling

  9. Female children, secondary schooling

  10. Educating Women Reduces National Infant Mortality Infant mortality (deaths per 1,000 births) Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia Middle East & North Africa Latin America & Caribbean East Asia OECD 70 50 90 110 Secondary education (females per 100 males)

  11. Educated Women Have Healthier Children Under 5 mortality per 1,000 Years of education of mother (Average of household survey results)

  12. Declining sex-ratio • There are at least 60 to 100 million missing women. • Female infanticide and sex-selective foeticide • Declining child sex-ratios • Relation of declining sex-ratios to the population policies and son preference • Example

  13. Percentage of female population

  14. Where is there anti-girl discrimination and a resulting shortage of girls? • East Asia: China, Taiwan, South Korea (not Japan) • South Asia: India, Nepal, Pakistan • Not in most Muslim countries of Arab Middle East, North Africa, Southeast Asia, or Central Asia • Not in most of Latin America, Africa, Middle East, Less Developed, or Least Developed Countries • Not in Europe, North America, Russia • Only certain cultures have such strong traditional anti-daughter bias that is now exacerbated by declining and low fertility, leading to sex-selective abortion and/or excess mortality of daughters

  15. China’s abnormal sex ratios • Situation deteriorated 1978 to the present • 1978-83: Announcement and implementation of one-child policy, increased coercion in family planning, resurgence of female infanticide • 1983-present: Sharp rise in sex-selective abortion, increasing excess female infant mortality reported • Reported sex ratio at birth and sex ratio of children at ages 0-4 rose to 120 boys per 100 girls in 2000 • Two positive trends: Ratio of male to female mortality rates became more normal at ages 2 and above. Sex ratio ages 0-4 stabilized at 120 during 1997-2000

  16. What causes the shortage of girls in China? • Poverty? No, some of China’s poorest areas have no missing girl problem. But economic considerations matter • Political or economic system? (No) • Illiteracy, low educational level? (No) • Chinese culture? YES • Low fertility? YES. Combined with son preference. • One-child policy? Maybe. Seems to worsen excess female infant mortality. Perhaps shortage of girls is more severe than without the one-child policy

  17. Declining sex-ratio in India • National decline from 945 to 927 in the number of girls per 1,000 boys aged 0-6 between 1991 and 2001 • Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Gujarat, (fewer than 800 girls for every 1,000 boys) • The ratio is also said to be low in certain districts, including the South West District of Delhi, which are "amongst the most prosperous in the country."

  18. In Asia, does economic and social development reduce anti-daughter discrimination? • Unfortunately not. Not automatically. There is no clear relationship • As shown by Croll, in East and South Asia, the phenomenon of “missing girls” has worsened as economies have developed, as the status of women has improved, and as female educational attainment has risen • In India, as in China, daughter discrimination is found in urban areas as well as rural, and among educated as well as uneducated mothers • The “missing girl” situation is also extreme in developed East Asian societies, such as South Korea and Taiwan

  19. Life expectancy at birth: female-male

  20. Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes (Child Obesity)

  21. Global Database on Child Growth • 3 year project by WHO & German gov.: nutritional surveillance database (HAZ, WHZ, WAZ) • Objective: characterize nutritional status, secular trends, ... worldwide! • Sources: published articles, gov. stats, survey reports (UN, NGO), >840 surveys • Group: pre-school children (here: 0-4.99=82%) • Surveys: standardized and quality controlled

  22. WHERE? • Characterization of the health status of the world at the end of the millennium: ‘cross-sectional‘ evidence (N=93-118; T=1995-2002) • 3 datasets constructed from the database • Overall malnutrition: HAZ, WHZ, WAZ • Where do we find malnutrition? (by region, by income)

  23. Our Research Aim II: Inductive stat. Part/WHY? • Statistical determinants of child health at the end of the millennium • WHO datasets combined with • World Bank data (macroeconomic, demographic, health, education data) • Other sources (political freedom, nutritional input)

  24. Stunting by Region

  25. Stunting and Wasting by Region

  26. Stunting by Development

  27. Gender-stratified Malnutrition: absolute

  28. Gender-stratified Malnutrition: relative Ratio = (% malnourished males / % malnourished females) x 100

  29. Area-stratified Malnutrition:

  30. Area-stratified Malnutrition: relative Ratio = (% malnourished rural / % malnourished urban) x 100

  31. Conclusion: Descriptive Part • Overall malnutrition • Levels: Stunting 25%, Underweight 19%, Wasting 7% • Africa (E. and C.), Asia (S-E and S-C) extremely retarded in growth • Gender stratified malnutrition • More boys (n=85) than girls (n=25) stunted • Divided western-eastern hemisphere • Area stratified malnutrition • More rural (n=90) than urban (n=3) stunted • Western Africa (and Oceania) less affected

  32. Regression general

  33. Regression rural and urban divide

  34. Regression male-female divide

  35. Freedom and rural-urban divide

  36. Freedom and male-female divide

  37. Regarding presentation • Presentation it must be on the topic of your assignment • You have 10 minutes to talk • Power point presentation is better • Send me your ppt files by Thursday 17:00 • Questions/answer session for maximum of 10 minutes

  38. Thank You