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Paradigms. Definition of a Paradigm & Synonyms . • Definition : Paradigm means pattern or model. • Synonyms : Theory, Dogma, World V iew, Mindset, Tradition, Habit. . Barker, 1993. Paradigm s. A paradigm is a system of rules that does two things :

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slide2

Definition of a Paradigm & Synonyms

• Definition:

Paradigm means pattern

or model.

• Synonyms:

Theory, Dogma, World View,Mindset, Tradition, Habit.

Barker, 1993

slide3

Paradigms

A paradigm is a system of

rules that does two things:

1. Sets limits or boundaries.

2. Provides guidance for solvingproblems.

Barker, 1993

slide4

Paradigms are Useful

• They tell us the rules.

• They focus our attention.

• They help us identify what’simportant and what’s not.

Barker, 1993

slide5

Paradigm Paralysis

This happens when aparadigmbecomes theparadigm – the only way to do something.

Barker, 1993

slide6

Back to Zero

• When a paradigm shifts, everyone goes to Back to Zero.

• Examples:

GM and Toyota

Motorola and Nokia

Kodak and Polaroid

Barker, 1993

ways to zero point
Ways To Zero Point
  • A new law.
  • A new invention.
  • Declarations of scientists.
  • Behavioural change of supplier
  • OR ……….
slide8

The Impossibility Question

• “What is impossible to do inyour life / business today, but, if itcould be done, would fundamentally change it for

the better?”

Barker, 1993

slide9

Famous Impossibles(!)

Phone

Television

Light Bulb

Automobiles

Computers

Michael Dell (Dell Computers)

Jeff Bezos (Amazon.com)

Fred Smith (FedEx)

conceptions misconceptions
Conceptions / Misconceptions
  • Eccentric Personality
  • Art
  • Intelligence
  • Good
  • Only a Natural Talent

Amabile, 1996

previous approaches to creativity definition focus on creative process
Previous Approaches to Creativity Definition:Focus on Creative Process
  • Instead of random associations
  • “bisociative process”
    • the deliberate connecting of two previously noted, which was irrelevant in the old and is relevant in the new context (Kestler, 1964)
slide20

Pablo R. Picasso

Spanish Artist and Painter. 1881-1973

“Every act of creation is first of all an act of destruction.”

creativity
Creativity
  • Creativity is the production of novel and useful ideas.

New

Uncommon

Unique

Valueable

Useful

Purposeful

CREATIVITY

X

=

Amabile, 1996

slide24

INTERFERON

The protein interferon, produced by animal cells when they are invaded by viruses, is released into the bloodstream or intercellular fluid to induce healthy cells to manufacture an enzyme that counters the infection.

slide27

1

3

2

creativity assesment
Context spesific

Subjective judgement of novelty and value

Creativity Assesment
a consensual definition of creativity
A Consensual Definition of Creativity
  • A Product or response is creative to the extent that appropriate observers independently agree it is creative.
    • Appropriate observers are those familiar with the domain in which the product was created or the response articulated.
    • Thus creativity can be regarded as the quality of products or responses judged to be creative by appropriate observers, and it can also be regarded as the process by which something so judged is produced.

(Amabile, 1996)

need for creativity
Need for Creativity
  • Real need (a problem, a crisis or a conflict)
  • Opportunity creation (opportunity, advantage and benefit)

(de Bono, 1992)

innovation value
Innovation Value

New

Uncommon

Unique

Valueable

Useful

Purposeful

Commertialization

Realization

Marketable

INNOV.

VALUE

X

X

=

Creativity

competitiveness
Competitiveness

Innovation

Growth

Competitiveness

Efficiency

Profitability

the components of creativity
The Components of Creativity

Creative

Thinking

Expertise

CREATIVITY

Task Motivation

Amabile, 1996

the components of innovation
The Components of Innovation

Management

Practices

Resources

INNOVATION

Organizational

Motivation

Amabile, 1996

creativity strategies
Creativity Strategies
  • Seeing What No One Else is Seeing
    • Knowing How To See
    • Making Your Thought Visible
  • Thinking What No One Else is Thinking
    • Thinking Fluently
    • Making Novel Combinations
    • Connecting the Unconnected
    • Looking at the Other Side
    • Looking in Other Worlds
    • Finding What You Are Not Looking For
    • Awakening the Collaborative Spirit
slide40

knowing how to see
Knowing How To See
  • Find a new perspective
  • Restructure in different ways
  • Do not approach reproductively
  • Reconceptualize the problem
strech and squeeze

CPST

Strech and Squeeze
  • Define problem
  • To find the appropriate level of abstraction, ask WHY? Four times
  • To strech a problem as a chain of questions with WHAT?
  • Continue until better understand of the problem
slide45

Selling more computers?

WHY

WHAT

  • What is more computers about?
  • Larger distribution
  • What is larger distribution about?
  • Increasing point of sale
  • What is increasing point of sale about?
  • Designing dealer network system
  • Why do we need more computers?
  • To improve communication
  • Why should we improve communication?
  • To improve better social life
  • Why should we improve social life?
  • To lead the good life
making your thought visible
Making Your Thought Visible
  • Parallel with language a language of drawings, graphs and diagrams
  • Display information in different ways
  • Visual thinking
mind mapping

CPST

Mind Mapping
  • Theme (center it)
  • List keywords and prompts
  • Locate keywords on relation basis and connect
  • Use graphics (color, pictures)
  • Cluster
  • Revise
thinking fluently
Thinking Fluently
  • All geniueses produce
    • Hard work
    • Continuity
thinking fluently1
Thinking Fluently
  • Bach: wrote a cantata every week
  • Mozart: 600 pieces of music
  • Einstein: 248 papers
  • Freud: 330 papers
  • Picasso: 20.000 works
  • Shakespeare: 154 sonnets
  • Edison: 1093 patents, (9000 experiment for light bulb)
brain storming

CPST

Brain Storming
  • Defer judgment when looking ideas
  • Generate as many ideas as possible
  • List their ideas as they occur and keep a writen record
  • Constantly eloborate or improve ideas
making novel combinations
Making Novel Combinations
  • Combining concepts
  • Combining problems
  • Combining perspectives
  • Combining domains
idea box the process

CPST

Idea Box:The Process

1.Specify Your Opportunity

2. Select The Parameters Of Your Opportunity

3. List Variations

4. Try Different Combinations

idea box an example

CPST

New Business Extension For Car Wash

Method

Products Washed

Equipment

Products Sold

Full

Cars

Sprays

Related Products

1

Self

Trucks

Conveyors

Novelties

2

Hand

Houses

Stalls

Discount Books

3

Edible Goods

4

Mobile

Clothes

Dryers

Combination

Dogs

Brushes

Drinks

5

Idea Box:An Example
connecting the unconnected
Connecting the Unconnected
  • Juxtapositions
  • Connect unconnected by forced relations
random input

CPST

Random Input
  • Define problem
  • Find random words (dictionary, newspaper, etc.)
  • List Characteristics
  • Force relationships
random input an example

CPST

Random InputAn Example

Challenge: Improve the automobile

Random Words and Characteristics

Nose

Shapes

Sizes,

Two nostrils

Smell

Apollo 13

Emergency

Fast

Soap

Cleaning

Slippery

Two separate power source (electric + gas )

Auto engine as a emergency power generator

Self-cleaning auto with accumulated rain water

looking at the other side2
Looking At The Other Side

Link up the nine dots with one straight line without lifting your pen

assumtion reversal

CPST

Assumtion Reversal
  • Define problem
  • List your assumptions
  • Reverse every assumption
assumtion reversal an example

CPST

Assumtion ReversalAn Example

NEW RESTAURANT IDEA ?

Assumptions about restaurants:

Restaurants have menus.

Restaurants charge money for food.

Restaurants serve food

A restaurant with no menu: The chef informs what he/she bought that day at the market. Customers select items that appeal and the chef will create specific dish for each customer.

A restaurant that gives away food: A café that charges for time instead of food.

A restaurant that does not serve food: Create a restaurant with unique décor and rent the location (picnic baskets etc.).

looking in other worlds
Looking In Other Worlds
  • Resemblance between two separate areas of experience
  • Areas
    • Accounting
    • Stars
    • Ocean
    • Math
    • TV News
    • Japan
    • Computers
    • ….
parallel worlds

CPST

Parallel Worlds
  • State your challange
  • Choose a key word from your challange
  • Choose a parallel world or field
  • List the thoughts that you associate
  • Look similarities and connections.
  • Generate as many associations as you can.
parallel worlds an example

CPST

Parallel WorldsAn Example
  • Challange: Selling more furniture
  • Word: Selling
  • Parallel World for Selling: Computers
  • Selling - Computers images: Multiple uses, security, hardware, software, add-ons, CAD

ANALOGIES: Multi function sofa set, hard skeleton – soft cushion separation, customer design

finding what you are not looking for
Finding What You Are Not Looking For
  • Creative accident
  • Interesting alert
slide71

CPST

PMI
  • Make three columns “plus, minus, interesting”
  • Under the plus column list all the positive aspects about the subject
  • Under the minus column list all the negative aspects about the subject
  • Under the interesting column list all those things that are worth nothing but do not fit under other columns.
  • The interesting items helps us to react to the interest in an idea and not just to jugdment feelings about the idea. “I dont like the idea but interesting”
pmi an example

CPST

PMIAn Example

Usurer Business

awakening the collaborative spirit
Awakening the Collaborative Spirit
  • Dialogue
  • Collegiality
  • Stakeholder Approach