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S6-14-O-02. ISFNT7, Tokyo, May 23-27, 2005. Design Study of Fusion DEMO Plant at JAERI. K. Tobita , S. Nishio, M. Enoeda, M. Sato, T. Isono, S. Sakurai, H. Nakamura,S. Sato, S. Suzuki, M. Ando, K. Ezato, T. Hayashi,

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design study of fusion demo plant at jaeri

S6-14-O-02

ISFNT7, Tokyo, May 23-27, 2005

Design Study of Fusion DEMO Plant at JAERI

K. Tobita, S. Nishio, M. Enoeda, M. Sato, T. Isono, S. Sakurai,

H. Nakamura,S. Sato, S. Suzuki, M. Ando, K. Ezato, T. Hayashi,

T. Hayashi, T. Hirose, T. Inoue, Y. Kawamura, N. Koizumi, Y. Kudo, R. Kurihara, T. Kuroda*, K. Mouri, Y. Nakamura, M. Nishi, Y. Nomoto, J. Ohmori, N. Oyama, K. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki,M. Takechi,

H. Tanigawa, K. Tsuchiya, D. Tsuru

( * Kawasaki Heavy Industries)

Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

outline
OUTLINE
  • Background
  • Concept of DEMO
  • Features of DEMO plant
  • Next steps in design study

2

1 background
1. Background

Situation of JA strategy for FE commercialization

• JA strategy still argued in AEC, not settled

• Point of argument: ONE or TWO steps to commercialization?

1 step?

Commercial.

Technology

Economy

ITER

Middle of

this century

2 steps?

Economy

Technology

Satellite

tokamaks

IFMIF

Tech.R&D

DEMO stage

3

place of demo

• Commercial reactor

with advanced tech.

• Compact & economic.

• Tech. feasible as DEMO

• Not competitive in market

(15 yen/kWh)

VECTOR (2001)

DEMO

Seek a DEMO concept

competitive in market

with foreseeable tech.

SSTR (1990)

Place of DEMO

Technology

advanced

conservative

expensive

competitive

Economy

4

philosophy for demo design
Philosophy for DEMO design

Design compromise of VECTOR,

based on foreseeable technologies

Technology

advanced

VECTOR (2001)

Modify “VECTOR concept”

to reduce tech. requirements

without losing compactness

Comparable in

tech. level

Low-A

DEMO

(Exp. in low-A scarce. Needs

support by satellite tokamak)

conservative

ex. NCT

SSTR (1991)

expensive

competitive

Economy

5

vector concept superconducting low a w o cs coils
VECTOR concept: superconducting low-A w/o CS coils

Remove CS

Aspect ratio

RTFC giving Bmax

A ~ 2-2.5

(elongation )

( magnetic energy )

Slender TFC system

High 

Compact, low-A & high with slender TFC

6

2 concept of demo
2. Concept of DEMO

VECTOR

CS-less

Advantage

very compact (light)

Difficulties

plasma shape control

• triangularity (HH, ELM contr)

• positions

(null point, div. hit point)

plasma current ramp-up

7

2 concept of demo8
2. Concept of DEMO

DEMO(J05)

VECTOR

Slim CS

CS-less

compromise

Rcs = 0.7m, cs = 38 Vsec

Advantage

very compact (light)

reduced but still compact

Difficulties

plasma shape control

resolved

• triangularity (HH, ELM contr)

• positions

Ics 10 MA/m

(null point, div. hit point)

improved but still limited

plasma current ramp-up

induce 3.8 MA

7

impact of cs on reactor weight
Impact of CS on reactor weight

Systems code analysis

weight ==> constr. cost

to find the minimum reactor

weight of the following cases

Considering tech. feasibility and weight,

“Slim CS” is a good compromise.

DEMO

~40Wb

170Wb

DEMO(J05)

Conditions:

• TFC stress 800 MPa

• same , N margins,

• fusion output 3 GW, etc.

8

slide10

3. Features of DEMO plant

  • Nb3Al S.C.

• 12 TF coils, Bmax = 16.4 T

Rp = 5.5m, a = 2.1m, A = 2.6

BT = 6T, Ip = 16.7MA,

N = 4.3, Pfus = 3 GW

  • Blanket
  • • Li2TiO3 / Be12Ti (pebble)
  • • F82H / pressurized water

Extrapolation of TBM(JA)

  • Divertor

• W monoblock / F82H cooling tube

  • Current drive
  • • NBI : 1.5 MeV
  • • ECRF : 170-190 GHz
  • Maintenance
  • Sector maintenance

Firm support of BLK / high availability

9

1 light reactor weight leading to a reduction of construction cost
(1) Light reactor weight, leading to a reduction of construction cost

Reactor weight :

10

2 seemingly n 4 3 is high but likely to have a large n margin
(2) Seemingly N (=4.3) is high, but likely to have a large N margin

ex., Lin-Liu / Stambaugh formulation

Theoretically, higher N expected in lower A

N limit for 100% BS-driven plasma

Tough constraint

Margin to LL-S N

11

3 demo requires technologies comparable to sstr

difficult

difficult

difficult

difficult

difficult

difficult

(3) DEMO requires technologies comparable to SSTR

Magnet

Maximum field

TFC magnetic energy

Plasma

Vertical stability

Density

ballooning stability

Confinement

12

4 next steps in design study
4. Next steps in design study
  • Refine divertor concept

– consistent solution of shape control (), radial build and

heat/particle control

• study startup and shutdown scenarios

– overdrive in startup / shutdown by impurity gas puff

• Provide feasible maintenance scheme

– sector transport / hot cell maintenance

• Assess supercritical CO2 as alternative coolant

– Advantages : Compact turbines, compatible with Be,

easy separation of T, etc.

– Disadvantage : organic compounds by CO+T2 reaction

Major change from the ITER scheme

13

summary
Summary
  • A compact low-A (A ~ 2.6)reactor is under consideration at JAERI as a DEMO concept.
  • DEMO has aslim CS for plasma shape control as a compromise of the CS-less VECTOR concept. Yet, the reactor weight is still light compared with other tokamak designs.
  • Required technologies seem comparable in difficulty level to those for SSTR.

15