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Sedimentary Rocks . Sedimentary rocks form when weathered sediment is deposited and is lithified. Review. What is: Sediment Weathering Deposition Lithification. Formation of Sedimentary Rocks. Lithification? The process of cementing and/or compacting sediment together.

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sedimentary rocks
Sedimentary Rocks
  • Sedimentary rocks form when weathered sediment is deposited and is lithified.
    • Review. What is:
      • Sediment
      • Weathering
      • Deposition
      • Lithification
formation of sedimentary rocks
Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
  • Lithification?
    • The process of cementing and/or compacting sediment together.
  • In the lab we did the other day (sand and food), which one represented compaction and which one represented cementation and why?
  • What is an evaporite?
    • Rocks that form after water has evaporated
subclasses of sedimentary rocks
Subclasses of Sedimentary Rocks
  • What’s a subclass?
  • Sedimentary rocks are sub-classified by the processes by which the rocks form and by the composition of the rocks.
  • The three main sub-classes of sedimentary rocks are:
    • Clastic
    • Chemical
    • Organic
clastic sedimentary rock
Clastic Sedimentary Rock
  • Clastic is Latin for “broken.”
  • Clastic sedimentary rocksform when fragments of preexisting rocks are compacted or cemented together
  • Clastic sedimentary rocks are classified by the size and shape of the sediments they contain.
characteristics of clastic sediments
Characteristics of Clastic Sediments
  • The physical characteristics of sediments are determined by the how much weathering took place before lithification.
    • Lots of weathering = smaller and rounded sediment
    • Little weathering = larger and more angular sediment
characteristics of clastic sediments7
Characteristics of Clastic Sediments
  • The tendency for currents of air or water to separate sediments according to size is called sorting.
    • Happens during weathering and erosion
    • Well-sorted sediments, all of the grains are roughly the same size and shape.
    • Poorly sorted sediment consists of grains that are many different sizes.
chemical sedimentary rocks
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
  • chemical sedimentary rocks form when minerals precipitate (solid out of liquid) when water evaporates.
  • When water evaporates, the minerals that were dissolved in the water are left behind.
    • What lab was this like?
  • Rocks that form through evaporation are called evaporites. Rock gypsum and rock salt are common evaporites.
organic sedimentary rocks
Organic Sedimentary Rocks
  • organic sedimentary rocks form from the remains of plants or animals
  • Coal and some limestones are examples of organic rocks (shell limestone, coquina, and chemical limestone).
  • Organisms such as clams and coral make their shells from minerals. When the organism dies, their shells settle to the bottom of the ocean, accumulate, and are compacted and/or cemented to form limestone.
organic sedimentary rocks10
Organic Sedimentary Rocks

The diagram below shows the formation of organic limestone.