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Nonfiction Unit

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  1. Nonfiction Unit Syntax, Diction, and Tone

  2. Phrase vs. Clause • Phrase—subject or verb, not both • Clause—both a subject and a verb

  3. Put P for phrase and C for clause.

  4. Two Types of Clauses • Independent: a sentence; can stand alone • Dependent: cannot stand alone; may start with a subordinating conjunction

  5. Find the dependent clause and write a D above it.

  6. Four Types of Sentences • Simple (one subject, one verb) • Example: By keeping a close watch over every penny and by refusing to spend unnecessarily, Tom and Mary saved money and paid all their debts. • Compound (two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction or semicolon) • Example: Go and speak. • Complex (one independent clause, one or more dependent clauses) • Example: When I really understand grammar and when I actually put it to use, my grades in English will improve. • Compound-complex (two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses) • Example: Where you go I will go, and where you dwell I will dwell.

  7. Above each clause, mark I for independent and D for dependent. Also name the sentence type.

  8. Above each clause, mark I for independent and D for dependent. Also name the sentence type.

  9. Four Purposes of Sentences • Declarative: makes a statement • Interrogative: asks a question (?) • Exclamatory: exclaims something (!) • Imperative: gives a command; often has a subject of (you)

  10. Mark each sentence below with its purpose (D, Int, E, Imp)

  11. More Types of Sentences • Loose – The main idea is stated at beginning of the sentence followed by additional information. • Example: He resigned after denouncing his accusers and asserting his own innocence time and time again. • Periodic – The main idea is withheld until the end of the sentence. • Example: After denouncing his accusers and asserting his own innocence time and time again, he resigned.

  12. More Types of Sentences • Convoluted structure – The main clause is split in two; subordinate material is in between. • Example: The pizza delivery boy, no matter how late, expected a hefty tip. • Centered structure – The main clause is place in the middle with subordinate material on both sides. • Example: After digging a large hole, I planted the tree, which was large and hard to handle.

  13. Mark L for loose and P for periodic.

  14. Word Order • Natural—The subject comes first and the verb follows later in the sentence. • Example: The dog ran through the mud. • Inverted—The main verb or helping verb comes before the subject. • Example: Through the mud ran the dog.

  15. Mark I for inverted and N for natural.

  16. Rhetorical Devices • Rhetorical question— a question which expects no answer; used to draw attention to a point; stronger than a direct statement • Example: If Mr. Smith is always fair, as you have said, why did he refuse to listen to Mrs. Baldwin’s arguments? • Repetition– using words, sounds, or ideas more than once for enhancing rhythm and/or creating emphasis • Parallel structure—the phrases or clauses balance each other in likeness or structure, meaning or length. • Example: To err is human; to forgive divine. • Example: But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow, this ground. • Example: Together we planned the house, together we built it, and together we watched it go up in smoke.

  17. Mark each sentence with the rhetorical device used (RQ, Rep, PS).

  18. Rhetorical vs. Interrogative • Rhetorical question— a question which expects no answer; used to draw attention to a point; stronger than a direct statement • Interrogative sentence—asks a question (?) and elicits a response

  19. Mark R for rhetorical and I for interrogative.

  20. More Rhetorical Devices • Anaphora – repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses or sentences • Example: We shall fight on the beaches; we shall fight on the landing-grounds; we shall fight in the fields and in the streets; we shall fight in the hills. • Juxtaposition – placing unassociated ideas, words, or phrases next to one another to create an effect of surprise or wit • Example: She slouched gracefully.

  21. Sentence Length • Telegraphic – shorter than five words • Short – approximately five words in length • Medium – approximately eighteen words in length • Long or Involved – thirty words or more (not necessarily a run-on just because it’s long)

  22. Sentence Openers • Adverb opener • Wisely, Helen made two course choices. • Actually, I enjoyed the storm for two reasons. • Adverbial clause opener • When I find the pot of gold, I will do two things. • Because Helen attended summer session at the college, she acquired two new skills • Prepositional phrase opener • In Southern California a tourist will find many unique spots of interest. • On the way to work I see many interesting people. • Verbal phrase opener • Infinitive: To do well in sports, you must practice regularly. • Gerund: Having never been to Paris, I am very much looking forward to our upcoming trip. • Participle: Exhausted after the long hike, we took an afternoon nap.

  23. Diction • Monosyllabic words • Anglo-Saxon origin • One syllable • Example: tree, hut, cow • Polysyllabic words • Latin origin • Multiple syllables • Antiquated, hierarchy • More polysyllabic words usually indicates a more sophisticated text.

  24. Diction Continued: Denotation vs. Connotation • Denotation: dictionary definition • Connotation: other meanings associated with the word as a result of a person’s background • Look at how each word changes when it is given a connotative meaning below.