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Some examples of Bad design. Example 1. For the bell to ring,  the timer must be turned to  greater than 15 minutes, and then set to the  appropriate time Not very Intuitive!!!. Both sides of the  refrigerator are  identical •There is no handle on  the front

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example 1
Example 1
  • For the bell to ring,  the timer must be turned to  greater than 15 minutes, and then set to the  appropriate time
  • Not very Intuitive!!!
Both sides of the  refrigerator are  identical

•There is no handle on  the front

  • How do you open the fridge
  • What is this sign telling motorists to do?
Check out
estimated numbers with functional difficulty in the uk
Estimated Numbers with Functional Difficulty in the UK
  • Dexterity – 1.7 Million
  • Reaching and Stretching – 1.2 Million
  • Manipulating and Gripping- 0.3 Million
  • Lifting and Transporting – 0.6 Million
difficulties with kettles
Difficulties with Kettles
  • Manipulation and gripping 273,000
  • Lifting and transporting 615,000
the order of difficulty of packaging products 1 being the easiest is shown in the table below
1 Cleaning solution

2 Washing up liquid

3 Soup tin

4 Sugar

5 Washing powder/liquid

6 Tin of tuna

7 Butter

8 Milk

9 Microwave meal packaging

10 Bread packaging

11 Tea bag

12 Instant soup packaging

13 Meat tin

14 Plastic bottle

15 Toothpaste

16 Cereal packaging

17 Cheese packaging

18 Jam jar

19 Shoe polish tin

The order of difficulty of packaging products (1 being the easiest) is shown in the table below:
1 Cleaning solution

2 Microwave meal packaging

3 Instant soup packaging

4 Soup tin

5 Washing powder/liquid

6 Sugar

7 Milk

8 Washing up liquid

9 Bread packaging

10 Butter

11 Tea bag

12 Tin of tuna

13 Plastic bottle

14 Cheese packaging

15 Meat tin

16 Toothpaste

17 Shoe polish

18 Cereal packaging

19 Jam jar

1 Shoe polish

2 Tin of tuna

3 Tea bag

4 Instant soup packaging

5 Meat tin

6 Cleaning solution

7 Butter

8 Bread packaging

9 Cheese packaging

10 Plastic bottle

11 Milk

12 Jam jar

13 Toothpaste

14 Cereal packaging

15 Soup tin

16 Washing powder/liquid

17 Sugar

18 Microwave meal packaging

19 Washing

  • Packaging products - transporting
  • Products excluded from the list because of small sample numbers include;
  • • No excluded products
  • 34
  • 1 Cleaning solution
  • 2 Tea bag
  • 3 Instant soup packaging
  • 4 Toothpaste
  • 5 Milk
  • 6 Bread packaging
  • 7 Cereal packaging
  • 8 Plastic bottle
  • 9 Tin of tuna
  • 10 Jam jar
  • 11 Butter
  • 12 Washing powder/liquid
  • 13 Microwave meal packaging
  • 14 Sugar
  • 15 Washing up liquid
Looking at the above milk bottle designs:
  • Each bottle design demands that the user has a capacity to perform a vertical lift by gripping the handle with a closed fist grasp.

We see that the bottles on the left will allow a greater range of hand sizes get a proper grip on the handle for lifting since it gives greater clearance dimension between handle and jug

In other words the structure of each bottle implies the user must have particular hand dimensions in order to manipulate the bottle
  • Thus each bottle places different demands on the user attributes.
  • If these demands are not met then the bottle cannot be used.
  • This conflict is the essence of how capacity demands define the guards of our petri nets
The above is an example of an object capacity demand.
  • There are other kinds of capacity demands based around action
  • These must be measured against the personal capacities of the agent and the attributes of the environment
  • This is summarised in the following

Capacity Demands

Action and Objects

Agent Capacities,Environmental


State Attributes


Transition Guard representing Barriers

( in terms of Capability Demands)

Incoming Tokens representing

Person and State

Action Capability Demands





Object Capability Demands




Environmental Demands

capacity demands and assistive technology
Capacity Demands And Assistive Technology
  • Action and objects place capacity demands on people and environment.
  • For example using a standard kettle involves a capacity demand of being able to perform a vertical lift of up to 1 kg(which is the weight of the kettle when full with water), one handed using a closed fist grip.
  • Assistive Technology changes the relation between personal and environmental capacities and the capacity demands of the action being executed.
  • This relationship is represented by the guard of the CPN
  • This is shown in the following example