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Lipids. Olestra. Adipocytes. University of Illinois. Fatty Acid Structure. Saturated Fatty Acids 10%. Carry maximal hydrogen Long chain fatty acid: solid at room temp. Short chain saturated fats: liquid at room temp. (e.g., coconut oil). Monounsaturated Fats 10%. Has 1 C=C

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adipocytes
Adipocytes
  • University of Illinois
saturated fatty acids 10
Saturated Fatty Acids 10%
  • Carry maximal hydrogen
  • Long chain fatty acid: solid at room temp.
  • Short chain saturated fats: liquid at room temp. (e.g., coconut oil)
monounsaturated fats 10
Monounsaturated Fats 10%
  • Has 1 C=C
  • Short chain fatty acids = what physical characteristic?
  • CaproleicAcid
  • Lauroleic Acid
  • Myristoleic Acid
  • Palmoteic Acid
  • Oleic Acid (Omega 9)
  • Eruric Acid (Omega 9)
omega 9 fatty acids
Omega 9 Fatty Acids
  • Terminal double bond at 9 carbon
  • Not considered essential
  • b/c no n6 bond….does not promote eicosanoids
  • Olive oil, canola, rapeseed, mustard oil
polyunsaturated fats 10
Polyunsaturated Fats 10%
  • 2 or more C=C
  • Contain Essential PUFAs:
    • Omega 3
    • Omega 6
omega 3
Omega 3
  • Alpha Linolenic Acid n-3
  • Sources: soybean oil, canola oil, walnuts, wheat germ, flax, fishes, chia, hemp seeds, algaes, leaves
  • Converted by liver into :
    • Eicosapantaenic Acid
    • Docoshexanoic Acid
functions
Functions
  • Neurological development
  • Reduce vascular disease
  • Reduce tumor growth
  • Reduce inflammation
  • Reduce CVD
  • Improved immune function
  • Cell structure
omega 6
Omega 6
  • Linoleic Acid n-6
  • Sources: most vegetable oil, nuts, seeds
  • Converted by the liver:
    • Arachidoic Acid
    • Docosopantanoic Acid
functions1
Functions
  • Promotes dermal integrity
  • Visual health
  • Cell structure
problems associated
Problems Associated
  • Proinflammatory
  • Eicosanoid:
    • Leukotrienes: inflammation
    • Thromboxane: platelet aggregation
    • Prostanglandins: immune and inflammation response
diseases associated
Diseases Associated
  • CVD
  • CHD
  • Cancer
  • Artherosclerosis
  • Alzheimers
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • ADHD
  • Stroke
  • Arthritis
  • Osteoporosis
  • ETC!!!
structural comparison
Structural Comparison
  • Trans position
  • Rigid
  • Cis-position
  • Fluid
naturally occurring tfa
Naturally Occurring TFA
  • Ruminants and their lactation:
    • CLA (conjugated linoleic acid)
    • Vaccenic Acid
    • 3-7% total fat
artificially occurring
Artificially Occurring
  • Partial Hydrogenation of Unsaturated Fats
  • Process was created in 1901
  • Proctor and Gamble created Crisco in 1911
benefits
Benefits
  • Increased shelf life
  • Decreased refrigeration
  • Lower cost than tallow, palm oil, coconut oil or palm kernel oil (saturated fats)
  • Solid at room temp. and liquid when heated
dangers
Dangers
  • Promotes increased Coronary Heart Disease (1956) and Cardiovascular Disease by increasing LDL and decreasing HDL
                  • New England Journal of Medicine
                  • National Academy of Science
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Non-essential and dangerous…the NAS recommends that we receive ZERO TFA
  • Labeling: to be ZERO TFA, a product must contain less that 1gr/serving
structural fats

Structural Fats

Phospholipids and Cholesterol

mouth
Mouth
  • Mechanical Digestion
    • Food mixes with saliva via mastication=bolus
    • Chemical Digestion:
      • Lingual Lipase: begins to melt triglycerides
stomach
Stomach
  • Mechanical Digestion: creation of chyme
  • Chemical Digestion:
    • Gastric Lipase: acts upon butterfats and other triglycerides
small intestines
Small Intestines
  • Chyme squirted into SI
  • NaHCO3 neutralizeschyme
  • Bile emulsifies fat into micelles
  • Pancreatic lipase converts triglycerides into diglycerides
  • Intestinal lipase converts diglyceridesinotmonoglycerides and fatty acids
intestinal mucosa
Intestinal Mucosa
  • Absorbs fatty acids and monoglycerides and anabolically makes triglycerides
  • Absorbs cholesterol and phospholipid
  • Combines these fats into a chylomicron
  • Goes to the liver
liver
Liver
  • Dismantles the exogenous chylomicron
  • Creates VLDL
  • Released into bloodstream
  • VLDL becomes LDL
slide34
LDL
  • High concentration of cholesterol
  • Attach to cellular cholesterol receptors and release cholesterol in cells
  • Do this to arterial cells…leads to plaques
  • Returned to liver to be destroyed
slide35
HDL
  • Smallest lipoprotein produced by liver
  • Pick up free cholesterol and deliver to liver or steroid producing organs
  • The excess HDL destroyed by liver and that cholesterol is used as component of bile