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The Wars of Religion (1560s-1648). Civil War In France (1562-1598). The Valois Family: The Beginning of the End. Henri II was the last powerful Valois Three weak sons followed: Francis II Charles IX Henri III Catherine de Medici controlled the sons: Was mother to the boys

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Civil War

In France



The Valois Family:The Beginning of the End

  • Henri II was the last powerful Valois
  • Three weak sons followed:
    • Francis II
    • Charles IX
    • Henri III
  • Catherine de Medici controlled the sons:
    • Was mother to the boys
    • Played both sides in the civil war
    • Developed a reputation for cruelty

The French Civil War

  • There were two sides:
    • Guise family led Catholics in North
    • Bourbon family led Huguenots in South
    • Fighting for the royal inheritance
  • Catherine supported the Guises in the first phase.
  • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
    • August 24, 1572
    • 20,000 Huguenots were killed
    • Henri of Navarre, a Bourbon, survived

The French Civil War

  • Catherine started supporting the Bourbons.
  • Henri of Navarre defeated Catholic League & becomes Henry IV of France.
  • Effects of Civil War:
    • France was left divided by religion
    • Royal power had weakened
    • Valois family now replaced by Bourbons





Henry IV of France

  • Ended Spanish interference in France
  • Converted to Catholicism:
    • Did this to compromise and make peace
    • Paris is worth a mass.
    • This was an example of politique [the interest of the state comes first before any religious considerations]
    • Fighting for the royal inheritance
  • Passed Edict of Nantes in 1598:
    • Granted religious rights to Huguenots
    • Did not grant religious freedom for all

TheThirty Years

War (1618-1648)


Characteristics of the Thirty Years War

  • The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground.
  • At the beginning  it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants.
  • At the end  it was Habsburg power that was threatened.
  • Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.

The Bohemian Phase: 1618-1622

  • Ferdinand II inherited Bohemia.
    • The Bohemians hated him.
    • Ferdinand refused to tolerate Protestants.
    • Defenestration of Prague May, 1618
    • Bohemia named a new king, Frederick II.

The Bohemian Phase: 1618-1622

  • Ferdinand II becomes Holy Roman Emperor.
    • Frederick II borrowed an army from Bavaria.
    • Frederick lost his lands in the fighting.
  • The rebellion in Bohemia inspired others.

The Danish Phase: 1625-1629

  • Ferdinand II tried to end all resistance.
    • Tried to crush Protestant northern Holy Roman Empire.
    • Ferdinand II used Albrecht von Wallenstein for the army.
    • Wallenstein defeated Protestants in north.
  • Edict of Restitution (1629):
    • Restored to Catholics all lands lost since 1552.
    • Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious and political rights.
  • German princes feared Ferdinand  he fired Wallenstein in effort to calm them.

The Swedish Phase: 1630-1635

  • France & Sweden now get involved.
    • Both want to stop Habsburg power.
    • Sweden led the charge.
    • France provided support.
  • Gustavus Adolphus invaded the HR Empire.
    • Ferdinand II brought back Wallenstein.
    • Swedish advance was stopped.
  • German princes still feared Ferdinand II.
  • Wallenstein assassinated to appease them.

The French Phase: 1635-1648

  • France & Sweden switched roles.
  • All countries in Europe now participated.
  • This phase was most destructive!
    • German towns decimated.
    • Agriculture collapsed  famine resulted.
    • 8 million dead  1/3 of the population [from 21 million in 1618 to 13.5 million in 1648]
    • Caused massive inflation.
    • Trade was crippled throughout Europe.
the peace of westphalia 1648
The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • The 30 Years’ War officially ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia
  • The treaties recognized the sovereignty of the 300+ German princes
  • The treaties disallowed papal meddling in German religious affairs
  • The treaties upheld the Peace of Augsburg, added Calvinism to the list of religions allowed in German states and nullified the Edict of Restitution
immediate results of the 30 years war
Immediate Results of the 30 Years’ War
  • After the Peace in 1648, the northern states in Germany remained primarily Protestant while the southern states in Germany remained primarily Catholic
  • The United Provinces and Switzerland won recognition as independent states
  • German princes won the right to form alliances and sign treaties as long as they didn’t declare war on the Holy Roman Empire
  • Sweden won cash and land in the Baltic region
  • France won the region of Alsace
political fallout from the 30 years war
Political Fallout from the 30 Years’ War
  • Because Spain lost territory and France gained territory, France stood alone as the most powerful nation on the continent
  • France also benefited from the fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire and the weakening of the Habsburg family influence
  • PoW=
    • the political power of the Holy Roman Empire faded into oblivion;
    • the Habsburg family remained wealthy and strong, though, and would go on to rule the Austro-Hungarian Empire later
things you must remember
Things You Must Remember
  • The 30 Years War began as a war of religion and developed into an international war of politics
  • While the war started as a religious war, the war healed no religious wounds
  • France proved that international politics would be more important in the coming centuries than religion
  • No participant in the 30 Years War possessed a large enough army to knock out its opponents; Louis XIV would learn from this
you must remember this continued
You must remember this …(Continued)
  • The Alsace region would be hotly contested even as late as World War II
  • The Holy Roman Empire historically had more influence in Germany than anywhere else in Europe; therefore, the sovereignty of the German princes essentially meant the end of the Holy Roman Empire
  • Because the vast majority of the fighting took place in Germany, the German states suffered more than any other participants