Urban Forest Hurricane Recovery Program. http://treesandhurricanes.ifas.ufl.edu. Developing a preventive pruning program in your community: Mature trees. Dr. Ed Gilman and Amanda Bisson. Inaction can cause structural problems. Young trees are easier to fix.
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Dr. Ed Gilman and Amanda Bisson
Young trees are easier to fix
Older trees are more challenging to treat
Codominant stems with bark inclusions
A recent study at UF showed that pruning reduces canopy movement when trees are exposed to high winds.
Your goal failure in storms
- choose appropriate pruning type
Strong union without a bark inclusion failure in storms
Close-up of included bark failure in storms
Reduce branch with crack failure in storms
Reduction could have prevented this failure in storms
Before pruning a leaning tree failure in storms
Location of girdling roots. Notice that there are few supporting roots on this side of the tree.
After removing girdling roots failure in storms
Broken branch pruned away to free the car
Notice the large limbs located close to the ground – these will eventually have to be removed for clearance.
More light here
-choose appropriate pruning type
Excessive sprouting as a result of stress caused from over pruning.
- choose appropriate pruning type
Reduction cut shortens the length of a stem by pruning back to a smaller limb.
Removal cut prunes a branch back to the trunk or parent branch.
Make an undercut about 12 inches from the trunk.
Make a top cut farther out on the limb.
Remove the stub with final cut, being careful not to cut flush against the trunk. Leave the collar intact.
Branch bark ridge failure in storms
Collar: swollen area at the base of the branch where it joins the trunk. The tissue is rich in energy reserves and chemicals that hinder the spread of decay. Good pruning cuts avoid cutting into the collar.
No failure in storms collar visible
Angle ‘A’ should equal angle ‘B’
Woundwood does not develop evenly
Reduction cut failure in storms
1 failure in storms Primary - do not remove
2 Secondary - almost never remove
3 Tertiary- carefully consider removal
4 Quaternary – could remove some
5 Quinary- could remove several
Structural pruning failure in storms
Pruning to restoreTypes of preventive pruning: Mature Trees
1 year brancheslater
2 years later
3 years later
Showing three cuts
First cut branches
Second cut branches
After pruning branches
Dense canopy branches
Two years later branches
Think right tree right place!
Reduction cut branches
Proper canopy reduction
Excessive sprouting branches
Proper reduction branches
reduces size while maintaining form
cuts barely noticeable
branch tips visible in outer canopy
drastic form change
cuts very noticeable
branch tips not visible in outer canopy
promotes defects and decayReduction PruningProper vs. Improper (Topping)
Topping trees promotes bad structure!
Large pruning cuts branches
After lifting the canopy branches
Two years later
Large lower branch removed
Clearance can be achieved by shortening low branches rather than removing them.
Don’t forget structural pruning! than removing them.
Reduce this side of the canopy
Excessive end weight limb
Large pruning cut
Reduce branched indicated with dotted lines
Pruning to: falling over Correct root problems
Produce a structurally sound tree
With dedication to a management plan, your community can become a model for others