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Chapter 3: The Dakota. Names for the Dakota. Also called ‘Sioux’ Ojibwe word meaning ‘adder’ or ‘snake’ Dakota—friend or ally Related to Lakota and Nakota tribes. Language and Dialect. Until 1700s the seven council fires or bands of Great Sioux Nation were in contact

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Chapter 3: The Dakota

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    1. Chapter 3: The Dakota

    2. Names for the Dakota • Also called ‘Sioux’ • Ojibwe word meaning ‘adder’ or ‘snake’ • Dakota—friend or ally • Related to Lakota and Nakota tribes

    3. Language and Dialect • Until 1700s the seven council fires or bands of Great Sioux Nation were in contact • Shared traditions and language • As Ojibwe came in, they moved • Result: 3 dialects (Dakota, Nakota, Lakota) • Kept moving when settlers came • No written language until 1830 • Many different sounds and phonetics than English

    4. Woodlands and Plains People • MN has 2 culture areas (geographic region in which peoples share certain traits) • Woodlands (NE, Central) & Plains (SW) • Woodlands: move w/ season • After horses, were able to adapt to plains • Rely on bison

    5. Food Sources • East: hunting and fishing • Fish, deer, fish, ducks, geese, elk, etc. • Lots of land—fought off • Plants: wild rice, roots, berries, nuts • Farming—Dakota women

    6. Dwellings • Tipis in winter • Cone shape-warm • Dew cloth • Wood poles & animal hides • Pad w/ grasses or skins • Bark houses in summer

    7. Dakota Education • Viewed education differently (observation & adaptation) • Taught children through example—independent and self-reliant • taught them to be naturalists, hunters, and gatherers • Taught to be good listeners (stories & questions) • Children spoken kindly to • Named after great ancestors or tribal members

    8. Kinship • One must obey kinship rules; one must be a good relative. No • Dakota who has participated in that life will dispute that . . . Without that aim and the constant struggle to attain it, the people would no longer be Dakotas in truth. They would no longer even be human. To be a good Dakota, then, was to be humanized, civilized. And to be civilized was to keep the rules imposed by kinship for achieving civility, good manners, and a sense of responsibility toward every individual dealt with • Tiyospaye—extended family

    9. Chapter 3: The Dakota

    10. Introduction • Dakota have lived in MN longest • Minnesota comes from a Dakota word: MniSotaMakoce • How can we understand people that lived so long ago? • Listen to their stories • History kept alive through oral history • Oral history used to connect Dakota to each other and the past • Storytellers (living books)—make stories come alive • Must remain quiet until story is over

    11. Names for the Dakota • “Sioux” comes from the Ojibwe (adder or snake) • Nadouessioux • “Dakota” means ally or friend in Dakota language • Great Sioux Nation or Dakota Oyate used to include all subgroups of Dakota

    12. Oral Histories Recorded • Dakota mainly use spoken word • Ohiyesa—Dakota descent; at 15 went to live with Euro Americans • Wrote 10 books about Dakota • Have several oral traditions in them

    13. The Badger & The Bear • Badgers are very generous—invite him in and feed him—when the bear comes to their house for dinner over weeks • One day, bear shows up with his family and kicks the badgers out • Badgers leave without fight • Father returns for food, but bear refuses • Avenger learns about the bear—starts going to tipi • Bear family runs away; badger family moves back in

    14. The Badger & The Bear • LESSON: Generosity/ohanwaste • Dakota would give out food, hold nothing for selves; 1 starves, they all starve • LESSON: kinship • Treat neighbors like family • Honorship—giving gifts in someone else’s name • To give is better than to receive • Never expected anything back

    15. Human capital in early dakota culture • Income: money or other benefits received in payment for goods or services • Use for food, clothes, shelter • More money=improve knowledge and skills • Human capital: the knowledge and skills individuals have that enhance their ability to earn income • Practicing their skills • Receiving education and training • Staying healthy and being productive • Connecting with people who can help • Dakota got what they needed by gathering, making, or trading not money • Dakota human capital: hunting skills, generosity

    16. The Ghost Wife • Young man who liked to be away from the village • Sees a young woman—falls in love with her • Remembers she died 10 days ago • Become husband and wife—he wants to move to village • She agrees if he will never raise his voice in the tipi • Move to village, have 2 children • After a long day, husband comes home and yells • His family disappeared from him

    17. The Ghost Wife • LESSON: respect/woohoda • Speaking softly, move carefully in the home, no watching someone sleep • Children: eyes lowered, kinship terms (my uncle Swift Cloud) • Even use kinship terms to people they weren’t related to—treat strangers like relatives

    18. The Circle of History • Dakota view history as a circle—things keep coming back • Heal wounds so they don’t come back • Past, present, and future all affect each other • If things from the past aren’t resolved, they affect the future

    19. The Dakota Nation • Dakota lived from St. Croix River to Rocky Mountains • Seven Council Fires of the Dakota—each group named for where they lived • Spoke 1 of the 3 dialects • All Dakota groups were part of one large nation called the Dakota Oyate • Dakota today live in: MN, ND, SD, NE, Canada