The life cycle of stars
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The life cycle of Stars. Where do stars come from. Stars form in clouds of gas (a nebula) These are called diffuse nebula or star forming nebula. A single nebula can form hundreds or even thousands of stars Let’s see what they look like!!. M8 – The Lagoon Nebula. M16 – The Eagle Nebula.

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Where do stars come from
Where do stars come from

  • Stars form in clouds of gas (a nebula)

  • These are called diffuse nebula or star forming nebula.

  • A single nebula can form hundreds or even thousands of stars

  • Let’s see what they look like!!


M8 – The Lagoon Nebula

M16 – The Eagle Nebula

Star Forming Regions



What do new stars look like
What do new stars look like

  • New stars usually have

    • Polar jets of gas and dust

    • A dark disk of material around its equator

    • They shine brightly in infrared but not visible light because the cloud of gas that the star forms from is blocking some light



What happens when stars start forming in nebulas
What happens when stars start forming in nebulas

  • Stars often form in groups called “clusters”

  • There are two types of clusters

    1. Open Clusters usually have only a few hundred or a few thousand stars

    2. Globular Clusters have hundreds of thousands of stars or even millions of stars


Open cluster m45
Open Cluster - M45

The Pleiades – The Seven Sisters



Open clusters
Open Clusters

  • Open clusters are still forming today from the larger gas clouds

  • Our Sun formed most likely was born in an open cluster

  • Open clusters are found inside our galaxy

  • The gravitational attraction between the stars in an open cluster is not strong enough to hold the cluster together, so the stars go their separate ways and live individual lives


Globular clusters m13 and m15
Globular clustersM13 and M15


M3

M5




Globular clusters
Globular Clusters

  • Properties of Globular Clusters:

    • They contain so many stars that gravity keeps the cluster intact

    • GC’s must have formed early in the universe when the clouds of gas were much larger and could produce more than a million stars at one time

    • No GC’s are forming today!

    • GC’s contain many of the oldest stars in the universe

    • GC’s are found in a halo surrounding the nucleus of our galaxy


Globular

Clusters

Open

Clusters


What happens at the end of the stars life
What happens at the end of the stars life?

  • Average stars produce planetary nebula

    • When the core of the star starts a fusion reaction with the helium ash, the temperature increases dramatically causing the outer layers to be puffed off.

  • Massive stars produce supernova explosions

    • When larger stars start to produce iron at their core, it marks the beginning of the end. The core collapses and then rebounds in a massive explosion called a supernova!


A glimpse at our future
A glimpse at our future

M57 – The ring Nebula











This star is in the

large Magellanic

cloud and became

visible to the naked

eye in 1987 but it

actually exploded

about 180,000 years ago



How do we know anything about stars
How do we know anything about stars?

  • From stellar spectrum

    • We know the composition of the atmosphere

    • We know how fast the object is moving

    • We know how fast it is rotating

    • We know the strength of its magnetic field


How do we know the temperature
How do we know the temperature

  • By looking at the color

    • RED = 3000 degrees

    • Yellow = 6000 degrees

    • Blue = up to 50,000 degrees


How did we figure the life cycle of stars
How did we figure the life cycle of stars?

  • We use an HR diagram

  • The HR diagram compares temperature to absolute brightness

  • When we make this graph we find that the stars are only found in specific locations.