Introduction to Sponges - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction to Sponges

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  1. Introduction to Sponges

  2. Porifera • Porifera • “Pore-bearing” • Over 4,000 species • Mostly marine

  3. Classification • Kingdom Animalia • Plant-like in appearance • Lack some typical animal characteristics • Distinct tissues • Dead end phylum • Nothing evolved from the Porifera

  4. Classification • Organized into three classes • Based on skeleton structure differences • Calcareous sponges • Glass sponges • Encrusting sponges

  5. Calcareous Sponges • Classification • Class Calcarea • Size • Small, 4 inches or smaller • Location • Shallow waters

  6. Calcareous Sponges • Structure • Skeletons made of spicules • “little spikes” • Made of calcium carbonate (lime)

  7. Calcareous Sponges • Two types • Leucosolenia • Simple (asconoid) canal system

  8. Scypha • Advanced (syconoid) canal system

  9. Canal System Function • Simple canal system • Water enters internal cavity (spongoceol) through pore cells in the body wall • Pore cell openings – incurrent openings (ostia) • Cells of the spongoceol absorb nutrients and oxygen • Water exits through excurrent opening (osculum)

  10. Advanced canal system • Folded body walls • Increases surface area • Greater absorption of nutrients and oxygen

  11. Glass Sponges • Classification • Class Hexactinellida • Size • Larger, vase-shaped • Location • Deep, tropical waters

  12. Structure • Skeleton made of crystalline silicon dioxide • Geometric pattern • Formed by six-pointed spicules • Possesses advanced canal system

  13. Encrusting Sponges • Classification • Demospongiae (Demo – “people”) • Used as bath sponges • Size • Large • Location • Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Mediterranean Sea

  14. Encrusting Sponges • Structure • Skeleton can be made of: • Elastic (spongin) fibers • Makes them “spongy” • Silicon dioxide • Combination of both

  15. Possess a complex (leuconoid) canal system • Commercial use • Collected by divers • Allowed to die/decompose in water • Spongy skeleton remains and is cleaned to be sold