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Section 3.3 Maintaining Healthy Systems. The Enemies of our Immune System. Pathogens are harmful organisms that can invade the body and cause disease. Includes viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. 1700’s E.g. Smallpox (pox virus). E.g. Bacteria - Cholera.

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Presentation Transcript
the enemies of our immune system
The Enemies of our Immune System
  • Pathogens are harmful organisms that can invade the body and cause disease.
    • Includes viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi


E.g. Smallpox (pox virus)

our body s immune system
Our Body’s Immune System
  • Innate Immune System
    • 1st immune response (within hours)
    • Phagocytes in the body attack the parasites at the site of infection.
    • They recognize pathogens by identifying their antigens and then engulf the parasites.
      • Antigens are proteins that are located on the surface of a pathogen (each pathogen has a unique antigen)

Adaptive Immune System

    • 2nd immune response (days to weeks after parasite enters)
    • The adaptive immune system produces antibodies which will attack the pathogens
    • They will also form memory cells to protect the body from the same pathogen
vaccinations e g virus
Vaccinations – E.g. Virus
  • A vaccine for the flu is composed of antigens from the influenza virus.
  • The body will then produce antibodies that are specific to the influenza virus.
    • If the flu virus infects an individual after the flu shot, their body will have a stronger immune response
      • therefore killing the virus.
vaccine controversy pros
Vaccine Controversy - Pros
  • If used widespread, the vaccine can eliminate a harmful pathogen
    • E.g. smallpox virus
    • E.g. rubella virus (German measles)
  • Vaccines allow the human body to prepare for infection in a manner that is more safe than being exposed to the pathogen without vaccination.
vaccination controversy cons
Vaccination Controversy - Cons
  • Vaccines tend to produce side effects.
  • The side effects vary between vaccine but range from:
    • Redness, swelling, itching, bruising, headache, nausea, severe allergic reactions, tiredness, vomiting, seizure, fevers, coma & brain damage (rare),
  • Vaccines are expensive to produce
    • The Canadian government spent 2 billion in vaccines against H1N1
  • Vaccinations can be dangerous for children
  • Vaccines may accelerate the rate of pathogen evolution
    • Super bugs
the community immunity dilemna
The Community Immunity Dilemna
  • If a small percentage of the population receives a vaccination, then the virus (or other pathogen) will be able to survive and harm many people.
    • All the individuals who took the vaccine were susceptible to the side effects.
  • If a large percentage of the population receives a vaccination, then everyone is protected. Even those that did not receive the vaccination.
independent reading stopping the spread of disease page 112 114
Independent Reading – Stopping the Spread of Disease (page 112-114)

Read pages 112-114

Answer questions 5-8 (page 115)

thursday work activity 3 c
Thursday Work Activity 3-C

Read pages 119-120

Answer all questions on page 120

Include a title page