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INDEPENDENCE & CONFEDERATION. The American Revolution and the Articles of Confederation. 1.Put the following events in the correct chronological order: a. Boston Tea Party b. First Continental Congress c. Intolerable Acts d. Tea Act

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independence confederation

INDEPENDENCE & CONFEDERATION

The American Revolution and the Articles of Confederation

slide2

1.Put the following events in the correct chronological order:

a. Boston Tea Party b. First Continental Congress

c. Intolerable Acts d. Tea Act

2. What might have been a reason that the British felt they could pass the Quartering Act?

a. The colonists should have to pay money

b. England was protecting the colonies

c. The government called for it

d. They needed better technology

slide3

The year is 1776. The United States has just declared itself free, and they need to set up their first national government. YOU have been put in charge to make this happen. What would you try to do first? Set up a court system? Police? Governors? Elect a president? Education? Safety? Something else?

slide4

Independence &

Confederation

slide5

Do you think the colonists would have wanted another king after they won the American Revolution?

  • Which government has more power today, the government of a state like North Carolina, or the national government in Washington, DC?
slide6

I. Articles of Confederation Background

  • While the colonists were fighting the British, they knew they would be stronger fighting together than apartso they created a united country with agovernment and a “rulebook”

Country= United States of America Rulebook=Articles ofConfederation

slide7

Independence and Confederation:

  • On Nov. 15, 1777 the Second Continental Congress signed the document called The Articles of Confederation
  • The Articles created a national government with only ONE branch, not like the 3 branches we have today. The branch was called the legislative branch or the Confederation Congress.

1. Review: What are our three branches of government?

2. The Constitution was the first constitution for our government (T/F)

slide8

Under the Articles the Confederation Congress had the following powers:

    • Wage war
    • Negotiate treaties
    • Manage American Indian affairs
    • Coin money
slide9

Strengths of the Articles of Confederation

  • The national government under the Articles (Confederation Congress) successfully negotiated the Treaty of Paris to end the Revolutionary war and recognized the Mississippi River as America’s western border.
treaty of paris
TREATY OF PARIS

“His Brittanic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free sovereign and independent states, that he treats with them as such, and for himself, his heirs, and successors, relinquishes all claims to the government, propriety, and territorial rights of the same and every part thereof.”

WHAT DOES THE KING OF BRITAIN AGREE TO HERE?

strengths of the articles
Strengths of the Articles
  • The Confederation Congress also solved the problem of how to divide up the land in the Northwest Territory and admit new states
    • They did this using the:
      • Northwest Land Ordinance of 1787
  • The Northwest Land Ordinance decided that land in the Northwest Territory would be divided into 10 new states. The national government would sell the land to raise money to pay for the Revolutionary War.
  • This set a precedent for how USA would expand westward.
the land looks much different in
The land looks much different in…

Massachusetts: The old messy way of dividing land

slide15

Weaknesses of the

  • Articles of Confederation
  • We mostly remember the Articles of Confederation because it did a bad job running the United States. The Articles did not give the national government enough power because the colonists were scared the government would end up like the British King.
slide16

Central (national)

Government

1777 - Articles of Confederation

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

State

  • State governments have most of the power.
  • Central (National) Government is weak
weaknesses of the articles
Weaknesses of the Articles
  • The Articles gave independent states more power than the national government.

WHY IS THIS SEEN AS A BAD THING?

weaknesses of the articles1
Weaknesses of the Articles
  • The Articles made it so 9 states had to agree to any act of the Congress, which was the national government.
  • ANSWER: Which was stronger under the Articles of Confederation: the state governments or the national government?_________
weaknesses of the articles2
Weaknesses of the Articles
  • The Articles gave all the power to ONE branch, the Legislative branch. This branch only had the power to make the laws.
    • There was NO court system or judicial branch to interpret the laws.
    • There was NO president or executive branch to enforce the laws
weaknesses of the articles3
Weaknesses of the Articles

One of the biggest examples of the weaknesses of the Articles was Shays’ Rebellion, which took place in Massachusetts. When a group of farmers rioted about a proposed tax, there was no strong national army in place to calm it down.

weaknesses of the articles of confederation
Central Government could not:

Regulate trade

Force citizens to join the army

Pass laws or enforce laws already in place

Collect taxes

States were not required to contribute

Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
congress could not
Congress Could Not:

Enforce a law if a state did not accept it

Amend the AOC without consent of all states

Have a president

slide24

Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-7

  • Daniel Shays
  • Western MA
  • Small farmers angered by crushing debts and taxes.
slide25

Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-7

There could be no stronger evidence of the want of energy in our governments than these disorders.

-- George Washington

slide26

The Final Word on the Articles:

  • The Articles DID NOT give the national government enough power to successfully run the country. This meant the states needed a stronger national government with the ability to unify the country.
  • The failure of the Articles directly caused the creation of the new, stronger government under the US Constitution.
fill in the missing document
Fill in the missing Document:

Declaration of Independence

US Constitution

fill in the missing legislature
Fill in the missing Legislature:

Continental Congress

US Congress (House and Senate)

slide30

1. What were the new powers the Constitution had that the AOC DID NOT have?

C-

A-

T-

2. Predict: Do you think it was easy for the states to compromise or not? Why or why not?

The Constitution was written in 1787 to make the national government STRONG by

1. Giving it more powers

2. Creating 3 branches of government

The rulebook was not officially approved by all 13 states until 1790 after COMPROMISES had to be made

slide31

The Constitution is the Solution!

Four Debates need to be settled! The Convention has come to YOU to ask for your expert advice! Let’s examine the problems you have to solve on the next slide!

slide32

The Constitution is the Solution!

With your partner, discuss a compromise for the four questions listed on the slide below. Write your responses on a sheet of lined paper to turn in to me! You have 10 minutes =)

Should each state have the same number of representatives in Congress? Consider: do all states have the same size population?

2. Should we keep slavery or get rid of it? Consider: should the government control moral values and how states make money?

3. Should slaves be counted as “real people” when determining the population of a state? Consider: were slaves human or property, and did they have the same rights as citizens? Did large states or small states have slaves?

4. Should we have a STRONG or WEAK national (federal) government: Consider: states’ rights, the Articles of Confederation…

slide33

The Constitution is the Solution!

Anyone think they had GREAT ideas?

Let’s see what actually happened…

slide34

II. Debate #1: Representation in Legislature/ Congress

Q: Should each state have the same number of representatives in Congress?

virginia plan
Virginia Plan

This plan proposed three separate branches of government and a bicameral (2 house) legislature where representation will be based upon states population or money contributions.

new jersey plan
New Jersey Plan
  • This plan proposed a one-house national legislature with representatives selected by state legislatures. Each state will be able to cast one vote.
compromise the great compromise bicameral legislature
Compromise: The Great Compromise=bicameral legislature

US Senate= 100 members

7. What does the word bi- mean? What is a bicameral legislature?

US House of Representatives= 435 members

hold up either your nj or va
Hold up either your NJ or VA!
  • Small population states would have liked this plan for the legislature the best:__________
  • Large population states would have liked this plan for the legislature the best:__________
  • This plan supported proportional representation:_____________
  • This plan thought every state should have the same number of representatives in Congress:__________
  • The Senate has the type of representation that the _____________ plan wanted.
  • The House has the type of representation that the ____________ plan wanted.
slide39

III. Debate #2: Slavery

Q: Should we keep slavery or get rid of it?

Northern States

Southern States

  • 9. Predict the region:
slide40

Compromise: The Slave Trade Compromise= Slavery will end 20 years

10. Why do you think they made the Slave Trade Compromise?

slide41

VI. Debate #3: Slaves Represented

Q: Should slaves be counted as “real people” (not property) so they count towards representation in the HoR?

=

?

slide42

11. Consider this: 1 representative for 100 people. Fill out the chart below according to the conditions

12. Would northern or southern states prefer to count slaves towards representation in the HoR? Why? Does this seem strange?

Northern States

White population: 800

Slave population: 0

Total population: 800

Southern States

White population: 600

Slave population: 400

Total population: 1000

slide43

Compromise: The 3/5 Compromise= Slaves will count as 3/5ths of a regular “white” person

5 slaves = 3 people for the HoR

  • 11. Would northern or southern states prefer to count slaves towards representation in the HoR? Why? Does this seem strange?
hold up either north or south
Hold up either North or South !
  • Slavery should end: __________
  • Slaves should be counted as “real people”: _________
  • Slavery should continue: __________
  • Slaves should be counted as property: _____________
  • Slaves should count towards representation: ___________
  • Slaves should not count towards representation:__________
hold up either federalist or anti federalist
Hold up either Federalist or Anti-federalist!
  • Wealthy
  • Manufacturing
  • Farming
  • Alexander Hamilton
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Poor
  • Strong trust in government
  • Loose interpretation of the Constitution
  • Strict interpretation of the Constitution
  • Weak trust in government
slide48
1

Which of the following is an argument an Federalist would make in favor of the Patriot Act?

  • States can strike down federal laws
  • Government must do whatever is necessary to provide national security
  • National security must never take away from individual rights
  • The judicial branch should not have any power in deciding court cases
slide49
2

What were supporters of the Bill of Rights called?

  • Parliament
  • monarchs
  • Federalists
  • Anti-Federalists
slide50
3

Why did the Anti-Federalists want a Bill of Rights in their Constitution?

  • To list their rights
  • To protect their rights from the power of the federal government
  • To prevent the ratification of the Constitution
  • To argue with the Federalists
slide51
4

Which of the following resolved the fight over representation in Congress between small and large states?

  • The 3/5 compromise
  • The New Jersey Plan
  • The Virginia Plan
  • Connecticut Compromise