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BABY’S HEALTH AND SAFETY: OUR TOP PRIORITY . Dr B.A.KHOO Consultant Paediatrician and Neonatologist Sunway Medical Centre 21 st JULY 2013 GARDEN HOTEL. What is our objective?. Healthy mother and pregnancy Healthy baby Happy family. BABY’S HEALTHCARE.

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baby s health and safety our top priority



Consultant Paediatrician and Neonatologist

Sunway Medical Centre



what is our objective
What is our objective?
  • Healthy mother and pregnancy
  • Healthy baby
  • Happy family
baby s healthcare
  • Physical health(growth and development)
  • Mental health (IQ vs. EQ etc..)
  • Social and behavioral health
  • Communication skills

healthy baby joyful/smart children

 holistic, wise and caring adult

tips for healthy baby
Tips for healthy baby
  • Good start – healthy mother – pregnancy
    • Good nutrition – pre and postnatal
    • Effective stress coping mechanism
  • Good immune system – vaccination, personal hygiene, healthy diet, etc..
  • Safe environment to learn and explore
  • Safe sleeping position
  • Early education and stimulation – audiovisual, music, communication etc..
  • Loving and caring family
early newborn infancy period
Early newborn/infancy period

1 – 6 mths

GORD (reflux)

Skin allergy

- eczema

  • D3 – D14
  • Neonatal Jaundice

1 – 4 mths

Infant colic

D1 D14 2 mths 4 mths 6 mths

neonatal jaundice
Neonatal Jaundice
  • Physiological jaundice (First 1 week of life)
    • Very common
    • Self limiting but sometime need phototherapy
  • Breastfeeding jaundice (First few days of life)
    • Due to inadequate breast feeding  dehydration
    • Advise to persevere with BF +/- supplementation
neonatal jaundice1
Neonatal Jaundice
  • Prolonged jaundice (After 14 days of life)
    • Need to exclude other conditions (e.g UTI, hypothyroidism, liver problem etc..)
    • Warning sign – “pale stool and tea-colored urine”
    • If all tests were normal, it is most likely due to breastmilk jaundice – harmless and BF should be continued


MILD, SB ~ 150-200 umol/L

MODERATE, SB ~ 200-320 umol/L

SEVERE, SB >340umol/L

Kramer LI. Advancement of Dermal Icterus in the Jaundiced Newborn.Amer J Dis Child. 1969; 118: 454-458

g6pd deficiency
G6PD deficiency





  • X-linked recessive red cell enzyme deficiency.
  • Asian babies (~ 3-3.5% in Malaysia)
  • Sex distribution:
    • Males – affected
    • Female – carrier
  • Can cause sudden and severe RBC breakdown when exposed to oxidative agents

mother father


carrier XX XY XX XY 25% affected

abdominal colic1
Abdominal colic
  • Cause ?unknown
  • Belief to be due to “wind/gas” in the bowels
  • Normally self limiting by 3-4 months of age
  • May consider anti-colic drops if severe
  • Probiotics may help
  • Warning signs: persistent vomiting(greenish), mucousy/blood stain stool, abdominal distension, refuse feeding, lethargic and unwell looking etc..
gastroesophageal reflux
Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Mild regurgitation is very common
  • Normally self limiting by 3-6mths of age
  • Observe if weight gain within acceptable range
  • Solutions: Feeding technique, position, smaller amount but more frequent feeds
  • If severe, may consider thickened feeds +/- anti-reflux medications
  • Warning signs: Forceful/projectile vomiting, feeds hungrily after vomiting, yellowish/greenish vomitus, poor weight gain, unwell looking, abdominal distension and not passing flatus/stool etc..
other problems
Other problems
  • Stuffy nose and noisy breathing
    • Seawater nasal spray is very safe
    • Do not give sedative antihistamine
  • Phlegm sound
    • Generally self limiting
    • CTM (herbs, pearl powder etc…) – not recommended
  • Hiccups
    • Harmless
    • Self limiting
    • Do not give excessive water(esp for infant < 6mths)
how to ensure my baby is thriving well and safe
How to ensure my baby is thriving well and safe?
  • First 6 months
    • Good nutrition – breastfeeding is the BEST
    • Safe environment and surrounding
    • Sleeping position – back to the BACK
    • Do not use “sarong” – prone to accident and chocking +/- suffocation
how to optimize your child s growth and development
How to optimize your child’s growth and development?
  • Good nutrition
  • BrEaST feeding – BEST nutrition (must make sure mother takes balance/healthy diet)

“All nutrients are essential for growth and brain development and there is no single nutrient that should be particularly emphasized as providing your child with well balanced diet”

benefits of breastfeeding
Benefits of breastfeeding
  • Both to baby and mother
  • Offer perfect nutrition to your baby
    • Protein, fat, CHO, minerals, vitamins etc..
    • Easy to digest (lipase, amylase and lisozyme)
    • Hormones for growth and development

(prolactin, prostaglandins, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroxine and growth hormone)

    • Anti-allergenic agents
  • Strengthen immune system
    • Colostrum – contain leucocytes, antibodies (IgG &IgA)
  • Promotes healthy gut system
    • Lactoferrin – increase iron absorption and inhibit the growth of bacteria (e.g. E coli) in the bowel
    • Prebiotics and probiotics (e.g. lactobacillus, bifidobacterium)
monitor their growth parameters
Monitor their growth parameters

** Beware of under-nutrition but AVOID obesity

when to introduce solid food
When to introduce solid food?
  • ~ 4-6mths of age
  • Timing and types of food?
    • 6-9 mths – cereal, porridge, bread, fruits, meat, chicken and vegetables.
    • 12-24mths – fish, eggs and all the above
    • > 24mths – honey, sea foods and all the above
    • >5 yrs – peanuts (risk of choking and aspirated into the lungs if being introduce early)
development milestone1
Development milestone
  • 4 Important areas:
    • Gross motor skill– ability to move around their environment from rolling over to crawling, walking, running, climbing, cycling etc.
    • Vision and Fine motor skill– ability to use hand-visual coordination to complete certain tasks for e.g. stacking the cubes, threading the beads, feeding himself/herself, writing, drawing etc.
    • Hearing and speech– ability to communicate with his/her surrounding through spoken words or language.
    • Social and behavioral skill– ability to interact with his or her peers, siblings and parents and maturity in handling social needs such as toilet train, social mannerism etc.
what every parent should know regarding their child s development
What every parent should know regarding their child’s development?
  • Every milestone had its range of normality.
    • Give some time for your child to acquire the skills as some children achieve certain milestone later than the other.
    • It is important to know the range of normality in order to detect the abnormality.
  • Children should be given enough time for them to perform under non-stressful environment or expectation.
what every parent should know regarding their child s development1
What every parent should know regarding their child’s development?
  • Every child is different and unique.
    • Your child will develop and grow at his own pace. As long as he or she makes forward progress in his/her milestone, just sit back and enjoy seeing him/her grows.
    • What's most important to track is that the child is making forward progress in all 4 domains of development.
  • As a parent, you know your child well.
    • Your first instinct is often reliable.
    • Talk to your paediatrician or bring your child for developmental assessment if you are concern about your child being delay or different from other kids.
    • Don’t wait!!!
ways to enhance your child s developmental skills
Ways to enhance your child’s developmental skills?
  • Gross Motor
    • Provide safe environment for learning and exploring - No sharp edges or corner
    • Avoid the use of bouncer or walker as it is more prone to accident and injury. By putting babies on the flat surface will also encourage them to explore their body more naturally.
  • Vision and Fine Motor
    • Encourage touching different textures at an early age
    • Encourage stacking the cubes/blocks and playing with clay + pegs
    • Encourage them to dig, paint, sweep, pour and thread beads
ways to enhance your child s developmental skills1
Ways to enhance your child’s developmental skills?
  • Hearing and Speech
    • Look into your baby’s eyes and talk to him/her
    • Read story book aloud to your child daily
    • Read nursery rhymes and sing nursery songs
    • Name the objects surrounding the house
    • Introduce flash card or picture book
    • Let your children see you read daily and they will follow
ways to enhance your child s developmental skills2
Ways to enhance your child’s developmental skills?
  • Social and behavioral skill
    • Create a positive body contact such as hugging and kissing
    • Encourage your children to share toys among one another and with their friends
    • Teach them learn to wait for their turn
    • Build his/her self confident – allow him/her to help in your daily chores
    • Let kids figure things out themselves – allow them to decide
    • Let your child respond by himself and avoid the urge to speak for him
good immune system
Good immune system
  • Vaccination
    • the most cost effective method in combating infection

A good doctor/parents – detect early and treat early

A “not so good” doctor/parents – detect late, resuscitate and treat the complications

An excellent doctor/parents – prevent the disease

“chinese proverbs”

  • Prebiotic and probiotic– enhance immune system, healthy GIT system + digestion



Hepatitis B















MMR & Hib







Vaccine Type

  • Pneumococcal – bacteria that are commonly found in the throat and nasal cavity of young children.
  • There are about 100 types of pneumococci, of which about 7-15 types are most important.
  • Pneumococcal infection can cause
    • middle ear infection (otitis media),
    • lungs infection (pneumonia)
    • brain infection (meningitis)
    • blood stream infection (septicaemia).
  • Pneumonia, meningitis and septicaemia are serious life-threatening infections with mortality rate about 30%.
pneumococcal vaccine
Pneumococcal vaccine
  • Prevent against pneumococcal infection
  • PCV(pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) – recommended for all children < 5 years old
  • 4 doses regimes for infant < 6mths.
  • 1 dose of PCV for children >2 years old
  • Rotavirus – the commonest virus that causes diarrhea in children.
  • Rotarivus is discharged by the billions from the infected stools of a patient and may contaminate garments, toys, bedding, food and in fact everything that is in contact with the patient.
  • Hence, it is difficult to prevent transmission of the virus despite strict hygiene.
  • The disease will present as fever, diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain which may lead to severe dehydration and can cause death


. Parashar UD et al, Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9(5):565–572

rotavirus vaccine
Rotavirus vaccine
  • Prevent against rotavirus infection
  • 1st, 2nd or 3rd dose to be given 1-2mths apart
  • 1st dose should not be administered after the age of 6mths
how to prevent allergy
How to prevent allergy?
  • Identify high risk infants – avoid the allergens during antenatal and from birth
  • Allergy prevention strategies:
    • Exclusively breastfeeding
    • Hypoallergenic (HA) formula – partially hydrolyzed formula shorter protein chain less allergenic
    • Probiotics
take home message
Take home message
  • healthy baby joyful/smart children

 holistic, wise and caring adult

  • Safe sleeping position and environment
  • Ensure healthy gut and immune system
    • Breast feeding, Balance nutrition
    • good personal hygiene
    • Vaccination
    • Allergy prevention
    • Pre/probiotics
  • Caring and loving family is essential