Chapter 20-1 Notes (History and Governments of East Asia) Asian Empires (China) Chinese civilization began in the Huang He valley 4,000 years ago. Until the 1900’s, emperors from dynasties ruled China. Confucius and Laozi were 2 important thinkers of this time. Under the Han Dynasty, paper was first made in China in 100 AD. Han rulers encouraged trade through the Silk Road trade route. The Tang and Song dynasties built roads, canals, and irrigation systems. Later Chinese Dynasties In 1211, Mongol rulers conquered and united most of China. The Ming Dynasty drove out the Mongols and built the famous “Forbidden City” (Beijing)
III. Changes in China By 1500’s, goods from Asia were valued and wanted in Europe Europe and Japan claimed areas of China which this is known as the “spheres of influence”. In 1911, Chinese revolted against the foreigners. (Boxer Rebellion) In 1949, Chinese communist (Mao Zedong) defeated the nationalist (Chiang Kai-Shek) Chapter 20-1 Notes on Korea and Japan I. Korea and Japan About 1200 BC, Chinese culture spread to Korea and Japan. Buddhism and Confucianism spread from China to Korea. In AD 1100’s, nobles fought for control of Japan which led to rule by shoguns and landowning samurai. The samurai helped the shoguns govern Japan until the late 1800’s.
II. Modern Japan Japan also tried to limit Western influence, but was convinced by U.S. naval officer, Mathew C. Perry not to. Japan adopted western technology and became an industrial and military power. Its expansion led them into WWII in which they were defeated by the U.S. Japan became a democracy in 1945. A Divided Korea After WWII, Korea was divided into (democratic) S. Korea and (communist) N. Korea. In 1950, N. Korea invaded S. Korea, the U.S. rushed support to force N. Korea back. Today, Korea remains divided under a truce, but w/ no peace treaty.
Why The A-Bomb Was Dropped Why use it? • Millions of American lives would be saved • Pearl Harbor • Demonstrate its power to the world • Speedy end to the war • Part of total war • Japan’s leaders refusal to surrender • Did not want the Russians to enter the war Why not to use it? • Killing innocent victims without warning • Bombings as war crimes (Holocaust) • Modify the “unconditional surrender” • Wait for the Russians to enter the war • Beginning of an “arms race” • Militarily unnecessary
Chapter 20-1 Notes (Economic Powers) Japan and the “Asian Tigers” After WWII, Japan’s economy was in ruins, but received 3.5 billion in aid from the U.S. This created an economic boom which made Japan the 2nd largest economy in the world. (car manufacturing) S. Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong have booming economies based on electronic goods and cars. These countries have been given the nickname “Asian Tigers” Singapore is a free port, which countries don’t pay an import tax. China China’s economy was slower to develop because of the strict communist control over it. In 1979, China began a number of free market reforms that has allowed its economy to grow.
Chapter 20-2 Notes (Cultures and Lifestyles) Population Patterns (region is 1/3 of the world’s population) Countries in E. and SE Asia are growing rapidly. (2 Billion) China’s government encourages families to have one child, the “one child” policy. Japan, Taiwan, and S. Korea’s population is declining. Most people in E. Asia live crowded river valleys and along coastal plains. Nearly 60% of the people live in rural areas, but many have been migrating to the cities. In Japan, the coastal cities of Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, and Yokohama form a megalopolis. (50 million) People and Cultures People of E. Asia are generally ethnically the same.
99% of Japan’s people are Japanese, Mongols are Mongolians, and most people in Korea are called Koreans. In China, 92% are of the Han group w/ the rest belonging to 55 other ethnic groups. Han Chinese, spoken by most people, has many dialects. III. Religion and Daily Life Buddhism is a widely practiced religion in E. Asia. In Japan, many people combine Buddhism w/ Shinto, a faith that focuses on nature. Communist China and N. Korea limit religious practices by the people. Religion and art are reflected through their writing (calligraphy) and architecture (pagodas) Education is highly valued, which many students go to school 6 days a week.