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漫談研究:從題材構思到論文投稿. 高 強 國立成功大學工業與資訊管理系 教授 於 義守大學 96 年 11 月 7 日. 大 綱 一、研究題材構思 二、學術論文撰寫 三、學術論文投稿. 一、研究題材構思. 1.   考慮因素 (1)  貢獻 學術性、實用性、共通性、特殊性 (2)  可行性 時間、費用、資料 (3) 常見之藉口 本土研究 、 英文欠佳 2. 基本理念 (1)    靈感 (2)    擴大範圍:放鬆限制 (3)    縮小範圍:集中焦點.

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漫談研究:從題材構思到論文投稿

高 強國立成功大學工業與資訊管理系 教授

於義守大學

96年11月7日

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大 綱

一、研究題材構思

二、學術論文撰寫

三、學術論文投稿

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一、研究題材構思

1.  考慮因素

(1) 貢獻 學術性、實用性、共通性、特殊性(2) 可行性 時間、費用、資料(3) 常見之藉口本土研究、英文欠佳

2. 基本理念(1)    靈感(2)    擴大範圍:放鬆限制(3)    縮小範圍:集中焦點

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3. 方法(1) 問題導向(2) 方法導向(3) 整合 垂直整合、橫向整合(4) 文獻閱讀(5) 修課

4. 建議由小研究開始☺

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本土研究

1. Chiang Kao, 1994, Evaluation of junior colleges of technology: The Taiwan case. European J. Operational Research 72:43-51.

2.   Chiang Kao, C. K. Lee, and C. Y. Chen, 1996, Overview of OR practice in Taiwan companies. J. Operational Research Society 48:569-575.

3.    Chiang Kao, 1997, The Delphi technique for personnel and budget allocation: a case study of the National Cheng Kung University Library. Libri 47(4):256-260.

4.    Chiang Kao and Hong Tau Lee, 1998, Demand for industrial management manpower in Taiwan: viewpoints of quantity and skill. International J. Manpower 8:592-602.

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5.    Chiang Kao, 2000, Measuring the performance improvement of Taiwan forests after reorganization. Forest Science 46 (4): 577-584.

6.    Chiang Kao and Ya-Chi Lin, 2001, Empirical standards for university libraries in Taiwan. Libri 51:17-26.

7.   Chiang Kao and Shiang-Tai Liu, 2004, Predicting bank performance with financial forecasts: a case of Taiwan commercial banks. J. Banking and Finance 28: 2353-2368.

8.   Chiang Kao and Hsi-Tai Hung, 2007, Management performance: an empirical study of the manufacturing companies in Taiwan. Omega, International Journal of Management Science 35:152-160.

9. Chiang Kao and Shiuh-Nan Hwang, 2008, Efficiency decomposition in two- stage data envelopment analysis: An application to non-life insurance companies in Taiwan. European J. Operational Research 185: 418-429.

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二、學術論文撰寫

Guide for Referee (European J. Operational Research)

Does the paper make a sufficient contribution to the practice and

theory of OR?

Is the title suitable?

Does the abstract concisely reflect the contents?

Are the keywords adequate and sufficient?

Does the introduction enable non-specialists to understand the paper?

Do the conclusions summarize the main results, arguments, and

assumptions?

Can you suggest ways of shortening the paper or moving materials

to Appendices?

Are the references adequate and sufficient? Are excessive references

included?

Is the standard of English adequate?

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論文架構

1. 題目(Title)切題、具吸引力、描述性、簡潔明確

2.  摘要(Abstract)全文之等比濃縮,應包含動機、目的、方法、結果Informative rather than descriptive

3.  關鍵詞 (Keywords)主題領域、應用領域、地理區域等,供分類、 檢索之用

4. 前言 (Introduction)動機、目的、前人研究等,但不應有結論 切忌用放大鏡看別人缺點,用顯微鏡看自己優 點

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5. 主文 (Main text)

6. 結論 (Conclusion)(1) 貢獻,但非前言或摘要(2) 假設不滿足時之可能結果(3) 後續研究

7. 參考文獻文中曾引用之文獻 避免引用雜誌、報紙、個人言論 ☺

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 A Comparative Analysis of Forecasting Techniques

資訊不對稱下之非營利組織

 有衝擊型的k-out-of-n系統置換策略之圖解法

 公家機構與民營機構人員事業生涯成就,工作滿意,組織承諾與離職傾向關聯性之比較研究 —以公立中小學教師與半導體產業員工為例

 流域水土災害防治與永續利用之研究The Disaster Prevention and Sustainable Utilization on Water and Land Resources Around a River Basin

The Application of Design of Experiments in Dying ProcessImproving the Dying Process via Quality Engineering ☺

abstract
Abstract

Recent literature has indicated that artificial neural networks, or simply neural nets, may be superior to traditional, statistical forecasting techniques such as logistic regression and discriminate analysis. An additional technique, logical abduction, is relatively unknown but may be even more accurate for certain types of problems.

abstract1
Abstract

Descriptive form“Three combinations of a main photo-period and varying intensities of supplemental light were tested to evaluate the effects of seedling growth.”

Informative form“Seedlings exposed to an 8-h main photo-period plus 8 h of supplemental light of varying intensities grew faster than seedlings without supplemental light.” ☺

keywords
Keywords

 Marketing, Management, New product introduction, Cannibalization, Time to market

 Inventory, Ordering cost, Customer’s satisfaction, Time discounted

非營利組織,資訊不對稱,監督,道德危機,捐款

 空氣污染,最佳管制,總量管制,數學模式,污然排放許可權,可交易排放配額許可

 道德強度,企業倫理觀,行銷道德決策 ☺

references and citation
References and Citation

(1) References

Scientific papers Cited in the text Actually read over Unpublished papers: forthcoming, to appear, accepted Format consistency

(2) Citation Ways: It is mentioned in [3] that… It is mentioned in a previous study [3] that… It is mentioned in Kao [3] that… According to Hillier and Lieberman (1995, p.168),…

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Order: A lot of articles address this issue [1,5-7,9]… A lot of articles address this issue (Kao 1999,

Lee 1992, Wang 1985)…

Indirect citation: Pareto optimality (refer to Charnes et al. 1978) is…

Informal citationPersonal communication with Prof. Michael Porter ☺

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5. 主文

(1) 重點 貢獻:本研究如不進行則無法獲知結果 清楚:所列步驟明確而可依循 正確:讀者依步驟執行可得相同結果 資訊:資訊重於描述

(2) 相關研究 文獻回顧,資料庫搜尋,專家詢問

(3) 方法 統計比較,作業研究最佳解 系統設計,現象說明

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(4) 數據 實例,文獻所載,問卷調查,專家訪談,

電腦產生,蓄意設計

(5) 結果Informative rather than descriptive

善用圖形

(6) 討論 假設改變之情形,他人研究之差異 ☺

informative vs descriptive
Informative vs Descriptive

Productivity =α (Technology)β(Management)γP=1.784T0.045M0.336Descriptive:α=1.784, β=0.045, γ=0.336γ7.5βInformative:Elasticity of P w.r.t. M is 7.5 times of that w.r.t. T.β+γ<1 implies decreasing returns to scale.T requires money investment, yet fast;M needs time to build up, yet less costly. ☺

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三、學術論文投稿

1. 期刊選擇(1)論文主題(2)期刊品質(3)延續性研究(4)首例:該期刊未曾出現過此類文章

2. 格式Oregon State Univ. 規範

3. 投稿 論文請第二人讀過,以確定文章流暢,意思明確

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4.  修改 針對問題答覆,勿避重就輕顯示出在意與努力

5.  退稿(1)不宜未做修改即改投其他期刊(2)重視審查者意見,思考「放棄」

或「修改後改投其他期刊」

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Guidelines for Preparing Articles

School of Forestry, Oregon State University, USA

1. Title Ten words or less, but informative.

2. Abstract About 150 words. Present all parts of the article in proportion to

their length in the text. Emphasize major results or conclusion.

3. Keywords Not more than seven. Describe the content of the article..

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4. Introduction State the hypothesis Explain how the hypothesis will be verified Review only pertinent published articles.

5. Conclusion Present decisions and judgments.

6. Illustrations Do not present the same data in a table and in a figure. Text should not itemize all the data in table or figures ☺

revision
Revision

Comment:The author must be careful in generalization of their work or any reference to other authors which are based on numerical experimentation.Response:We check the paper completely and only one appearance is found. That is, the last sentence of the Abstract:〝Empirical results from a stochastic Watson function with nine variables, a queueing problem with two variables, and an inventory problem with two variables indicate that the conjugate direction method modified in this paper is superior to the Nelder-Mead simlex method, a quasi-Newton method, and several other methods discussed in the literature.〞

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In the new version, this sentence is changed to:〝In an experimental comparison, the proposed method outperforms the Nelder-Mead simplex method, a quasi-Newton method, and several other methods in solving a stochastic Watson function with nine variables, a queueing problem with two variables, and an inventory problem with variables.〞

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Comment:Before the paper will be publishable, all references should be double-checked.

Response:

1.  Many thanks to the referee, we have double-checked the references in preparing the new version of the paper.

 2.   In revising the paper, we have double-checked the references, and only one mistake was found:‵G.H. Polychropoulos and J.N. Tsisklis, “Stochastic shortest path problems with resource, ” Networks, vol. 27, pp. 133-143, 1996.′Should read:‵G.H. Polychropoulos and J.N. Tsitsklis, “Stochastic shortest path problems with resource, ” Networks, vol. 27, pp. 133-143, 1996.′

submission log of measuring the performance improvement of taiwan forests after reorganization
Submission Log ofMeasuring the Performance Improvement of Taiwan Forests after Reorganization

Annals of Operations Research

(Follow-up evaluation of the performance of Taiwan forests after reorganization)

Rejection

J. Operational Research Society

Recommend sending to OR Insight

European J. Operational Research

(Evaluation of efficiency changes: a case of Taiwan forests)

Revision (give up)

  • 1. 1993.09.16

1994.05.27

  • 2. 1994.10.11

11.11

  • 3. 1994.11.23

1996.01.24

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J. Environmental Management

(Follow-up evaluation of the performance of Taiwan forests after reorganization)

Rejection

Omega, Int. J. Management Science

(Data envelopment analysis for measuring efficiency changes: a case of Taiwan forests )

Revision (1st)

Revision (2nd)

Revision (3rd)

Revision (4th)

Revision (5th)

Revision (6th)

Rejection

  • 4. 1996.02.12

09.23

  • 5. 1996.11.04
  • 1997.03.06
  • 06.16
  • 06.30
  • 08.16
  • 10.04
  • 11.04
  • 11.25
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Forest Science

(Measuring the performance improvement of Taiwan forests after reorganization)

Revision

Acceptance

  • 6. 1999.07.20
  • 11.16
  • 2000.05.01