Germany Government after WWI • Monarch leader Kaiser Wilhelm II flees Germany to the Netherlands abdicating his throne. • Allies want Wilhelm punished, Netherlands won’t give him up. • As of January 1920 Germany is without a leader. The Allies help set up an interim government.
Germany 1933-1939 • January 30, 1933 – Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany
Germany 1933-1939 • February 28, 1933 – German government takes away freedom of speech, assembly, press, and privacy (arresting anyone who spoke out against the Nazis) • March 22, 1933 – first concentration camp opens at Dachau, Germany
Dachau • Dachau was built because prisons were overflowing • Nazis didn’t have money to built more prisons, so they built work camps • SS troops used Dachau to train for work in the death camps When the Nazis arrested the Communists,
Germany 1933-1939 • March 23, 1933-Hitler becomes dictator of Germany • April 1, 1933 – Nationwide boycott of Jewish-owned businesses in Germany
Germany 1933-1939 • May 10, 1933 – Jewish books burned • July 14, 1933 – Laws passed in Germany permitting the forced sterilization of Gypsies, the mentally and physically disabled, and African-Germans
Germany 1933-1939 • March 17, 1935 – Nazi’s invades the Rhineland • April 1935 – Jehovah’s Witnesses are arrested
Germany 1933-1939 • September 15, 1935 - Nuremberg Laws established. Starting immediately: • A citizen is one is considered to be pure blood per the government.You must be born in Germany and your parents and grandparents must be pure blood also. • You must be faithful to the government.
Nuremberg Laws Continued • The state decides who will receive a certificate of citizenship. • Only citizens receive rights and protection • Marriages between citizens and non-citizens are forbidden. • Non-citizens can only fly the flag of their origin.
Nuremberg Laws Continued • Non-citizens have no voting rights and cannot hold public office. • Non-citizens are forbidden to own or operate stores, mail order businesses, sales agencies, carry on any trade or hold any executive position. • Non-citizens are not entitled to any pension or compensation when terminated.
These new laws made the JEWS NON-CITIZENS
1936 Olympics . Summer 1936 – Olympic games take place in Berlin. Anti-Jewish signs are removed until games are over
1936 Olympics Inaugurating a new Olympic ritual, a lone runner arrived bearing a torch carried by relay from the site of the ancient Games in Olympia, Greece
1936 Olympics The 1936 Berlin Olympic Games was the perfect opportunity for the Nazis to prove to the world the reality of the Master Race.
1936 Olympics 49 athletic teams from around the world competed in the Berlin Olympics. Germany had the largest team at the Berlin Games with 348 athletes. The Soviet Union did not participate in the Berlin Games. Afghanistan Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Bulgaria Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Czechoslovakia Denmark Egypt Estonia Finland France Germany Great Britain Greece Hungary IcelandIndia Italy Japan Latvia Liechtenstein Luxembourg Malta Mexico Monaco Netherlands New Zealand Norway Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Romania South Africa Sweden Switzerland Turkey United States Uruguay Yugoslavia
AfricanAmerican Athletes Jesse Owens, "the fastest human being," captured four gold medals and became the hero of the Olympics.
After the Games "I'm afraid the Nazis have succeeded with their propaganda. First, the Nazis have run the Games on a lavish scale never before experienced, and this has appealed to the athletes. Second, the Nazis have put up a very good front for the general visitors, especially the big businessmen." Foreign correspondent William Shirer in his diary, Berlin, August 16, 1936 In 1940 the Olympic Games will take place in Tokyo. But thereafter they will take place in Germany for all time to come, in this stadium." Adolf Hitler, in conversation with Albert Speer, general architectural inspector for the Reich, spring 1937
2 Years Later… • March 13, 1938 – Austria is annexed by Germany • 600,000 Jews lived in Germany when the Nazis took power. With the annexation the number of Jews targeted has risen to 800,000. • July 6-15, 1938-representatives from 32 countries meet in Evian, France to discuss refugee policies.
U.S.A Immigration Policy • As of 1924 the U.S.A was only letting in 150,000 TOTAL immigrants a year. • As of 1930 the U.S.A. let in 15,000German immigrants • In 1939 it was raised to 27,300
Germany 1933 - 1939 • November 9-10, 1938 – Nazis burn Jewish synagogues and loot Jewish homes and businesses called Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass). Nearly 30,000 German and Austrian Jewish men are deported to concentration camps. Many Jewish women are jailed.
Germany 1933 - 1939 • March 15, 1939 – German troops invade Czechoslovakia • May 13, 1939 - the S.S. St. Louis leaves Germany for Cuba
S.S. St. Louis 937 Jewish refugees fleeing persecution from Nazi Germany