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Learning. Final Exam Review. Question 1. A two-year old child is frightened by a small dog. A few weeks later the same child sees a cat and becomes frightened. The child’s reaction is most likely an example of which of the following? Stimulus discrimination Second-order conditioning

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Final Exam Review

question 1
Question 1
  • A two-year old child is frightened by a small dog. A few weeks later the same child sees a cat and becomes frightened. The child’s reaction is most likely an example of which of the following?
    • Stimulus discrimination
    • Second-order conditioning
    • Stimulus generalization
    • Sensory preconditioning
    • Spontaneous recovery
question 2
Question 2
  • A monkey is conditioned to flinch at the sound of a bell that was previously paired with a puff of air to the monkey’s check. Which of the following explanations would be most consistent with a cognitive interpretation of this conditioning?
    • The animal cannot control its tendency to flinch because the response of flinching is simply a reflex to the bell.
    • The strength of the flinch response is a function of the time interval between the onset of the bell and the air puff.
    • The monkey interprets the bell as a signal that the air puff will follow.
    • The bell is merely a substitute stimulus for the air puff.
    • Monkeys are intelligent and know that they should flinch when they hear tones that are paired with stimuli that elicit reflexes.
question 3
Question 3
  • John Garcia showed that when rats ingested a novel substance before becoming nauseated from radiation or drugs, they acquired a
    • Conditioned taste preference for the substance
    • Generalized taste preference for similar substances
    • Conditioned taste aversion for the substance
    • Conditioned taste aversion for any novel substance
    • Conditioned taste preference for any novel substance
question 4
Question 4
  • After seeing her parents give her brother a dollar for cleaning his room, Sarah begins cleaning her own room. According to social-learning theorists, Sarah’s behavior is an example of which of the following?
    • Classical conditioning
    • Spontaneous recovery
    • Stimulus generalization
    • Discrimination training
    • Observational learning
question 5
Question 5
  • Research indicates that many animals are more likely to associate sickness with a taste they experience in conjunction with the illness than with the tone or light. This finding supports which of the following claims?
    • The tone or light must not have been appropriately paired with the onset of the onset of the illness
    • Illness is not necessarily punishing to subjects
    • Animals may be biologically prepared to learn some things over other things
    • Extrinsic reinforcers may be more effective than intrinsic reinforcers
    • Positive reinforcers are more effective than punishers.
question 6
Question 6
  • Rats in an experiment learned to associate sweetened water with a drug that causes immune suppression. Later, the sweetened water alone produced the immune suppression. This outcome is an example of which of the following?
    • Learned helplessness
    • Systematic desensitization
    • Operant conditioning
    • Classical conditioning
    • Biofeedback
question 7
Question 7
  • The reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response is called
    • Acquisition
    • Generalization
    • Extinction
    • Discrimination
    • Spontaneous recovery
question 8
Question 8
  • A person who is fearful of rattlesnakes but not garden snakes is exhibiting
    • Response learning
    • Discrimination learning
    • Insight learning
    • Extinction
    • Generalization
question 9
Question 9
  • A child has learned that her grandparents ignore rather than reward her tantrums. Which of the following operant principles are the grandparents using to control the child’s behavior?
    • Positive reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
    • Delayed reinforcement
    • Extinction
    • Stimulus substitution
question 10
Question 10
  • Long term potentiation is best described as the
    • Interference effect of old memories on the formation of new memories
    • Disruptive influence of recent memories on the recall of old memories
    • Tendency of people to recall experiences that are consistent with their current mood
    • Increased efficiency of synaptic transmission between certain neurons following learning
    • Superior ability of older adults to recall events from their childhood
question 11
Question 11
  • A person closes a window to shut out traffic noise. The reduction in noise leads the person to close the window every day. This is an example of
    • Positive reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
    • Punishment
    • Omission training
    • An appetitive stimulus
question 12
Question 12
  • Classical conditioning is most efficient when the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    • Immediately follows the conditioned stimulus (CS)
    • Follows the conditioned stimulus (CS)
    • Immediately precedes the conditioned stimulus (CS)
    • Precedes the conditioned stimulus (CS) by a few minutes
    • Is presented at the same time as the conditioned stimulus (CS)
question 13
Question 13
  • Which classical study forms the basis for social (observational) learning?
    • Ivan Pavlov..salivating dogs
    • B.F. Skinner..key pecking pigeons
    • John Garcia..nauseous rats
    • John Watson..Little Albert
    • Albert Bandura..Bobo doll
question 14
Question 14
  • A researcher gave identical puzzles to five-year-old children in two groups, group A and group B. The children in group A were promised candy if they completed the puzzles quickly and well. The children in group B were not promised a reward but were encouraged to do the best that they could. If the researcher argues that overjustification occurred, which of the following most likely happened during the experiment?
    • Group A worked harder and better than group B.
    • Both groups worked equally hard and well.
    • Group B felt angry at not receiving the promise of a reward and therefore did not work at all.
    • Group A did not work as hard or as well as group B and would be less likely to spontaneously work on similar puzzles in the future.
    • Group B worked equally well as group A but would quickly argue that they would have done better if offered a reward.
question 15
Question 15
  • Edward L. Thorndike argued that responses that lead to satisfying outcomes are more likely to be repeated, and that responses followed by unpleasant outcomes are less likely to be repeated. This became known as the Law of
    • Reinforcement
    • Associations
    • Punishment
    • Effect
    • Outcomes
question 16
Question 16
  • The principles of operant conditioning are best illustrated by
    • Exposing a client to anxiety provoking stimuli
    • Replacing a response to a stimulus with an alternative response
    • Deep relaxation techniques
    • A token economy to reinforce adaptive behaviors
    • Development of intrinsic motivation
question 17
Question 17
  • In phase one of a study, a researcher classically conditions a dog to salivate to the ringing of a bell. In the second phase, the researcher pairs a flashing light with the ringing of the bell. After several pairings of the light and the bell, the dog will
    • No longer salivate when the bell is rung
    • Only salivate when the bell is rung
    • Salivate when the light is flashed
    • Stop salivating when the light is flashed
    • Salivate when the researcher comes into the room
question 18
Question 18
  • In a classic study, a group of rats learned to run through a maze to obtain food, and another group of rats explored the maze without receiving food. Some time later, the researcher compared the two groups of rats to determine if both groups would find the food at the end of the maze. According to the researcher, the untrained rats found the food at the end of the maze as quickly as the trained rats as result of
    • Latent learning
    • Observational learning
    • Avoidance learning
    • Counterconditioning
    • Aversive conditioning
question 19
Question 19
  • A researcher is training laboratory rats to run a complex maze. Each time the rats learn a new part of the maze, they are rewarded with a pellet of food. Within a few hours, the rats have learned the entire maze. Which of the following did the researcher use to teach the rats the maze?
    • Shaping
    • Generalization
    • Negative reinforcement
    • A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement
    • Spontaneous recovery
question 20
Question 20
  • Students who enjoyed solving a puzzle were rewarded for doing so. Later, they played less with the puzzle than did their counterparts who were not rewarded for the same task. This illustrates which of the following principles?
    • Latent learning
    • Self-fulfilling prophecy
    • Intermittent reinforcement
    • The overjustification effect
    • The law of effect
question 21
Question 21
  • Elizabeth picks up the clothes from her bedroom floor and puts them away to avoid her mother’s repeated nagging. Elizabeth’s behavior is being influenced by
    • Classical conditioning
    • Positive reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
    • Extinction
    • Punishment
question 22
Question 22
  • A person eats a hamburger at a restaurant and develops a very bad stomachache after finishing eating. As a result of the sudden illness, the person cannot eat hamburgers anymore. Just thinking about them makes the person feel sick to the stomach. In this scenario, the thought of a hamburger is
    • An unconditioned stimulus
    • An unconditioned response
    • A conditioned stimulus
    • A conditioned response
    • A negative reinforce
question 23
Question 23
  • For extinction to occur, which of the following must be true of the conditioned response (CR), the conditioned stimulus (CS), and the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)?
    • The CR occurs after the CS but does not occur after other stimuli
    • The CR occurs after a stimulus that is similar to the CS
    • The CS and the UCS are repeatedly paired, and the CR gains strength
    • When the CR loses strength, a rest period is given, after which the CS does not elicit the CR
question 24
Question 24
  • A child who learns that spoons are tableware and then correctly calls forks and knifes tableware is demonstrating
    • Rote learning
    • Imitation learning
    • Discrimination learning
    • Stimulus generalization
    • Classical conditioning
question 25
Question 25
  • John B. Watson is best known as the founder of
    • Behaviorism
    • Functionalism
    • Rationalism
    • Structuralism
    • Mechanism
question 26
Question 26
  • Which of the following is a partial reinforcement schedule that is most resistant to extinction?
    • Noncontingent
    • Shaping
    • Variable ratio
    • Fixed ratio
    • Fixed interval
question 27
Question 27
  • Which of the following statements best depicts the concept of incentive theory?
    • Roger has not eaten all day; therefore, he daydreams about pizza
    • Pam was extremely thirsty and drank two bottles of water after running two miles
    • Jennifer studies hard because her parents reward her by paying $20 for each superior grade that she brings home
    • Despite low grades, Fred continues to study because he is interested in the material
    • Kevin says that he is constantly hungry and eats at least five meals a day to reduce the hunger