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Pg 247: Chapter 9 Sections 3 & 4. Immunity and Disease. First Line Defenses. Your skin, respiratory system, digestive and circulatory systems are your body’s line against Pathogens . Disease causing organism Your skin stops many pathogens from entering your body .

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Pg 247 chapter 9 sections 3 4

Pg 247: Chapter 9 Sections 3 & 4

Immunity and Disease

First line defenses
First Line Defenses

  • Your skin, respiratory system, digestive and circulatory systems are your body’s line against Pathogens.

    • Disease causing organism

  • Your skin stops many pathogens from entering your body

  • Internal first line defenses
    Internal first-line defenses

    • Respiratory system traps pathogens with cilia (hair like structures in your nose), and with mucus.

      • Sneezing or coughing helps to get rid of pathogens

    • Digestive system – destroys and fights pathogens with saliva, enzymes and hydrochloric acid

    Blood cells inflammation
    Blood Cells & Inflammation

    • White blood cells constantly circulate your body digesting invaders

    • When tissue is injured it become inflamed (swells).

      • This is cause by capillaries getting bigger to allow more blood to pass through them.

      • The area looks red and swollen, and white blood cells rush to the area.

    Specific immunity
    Specific Immunity

    • When your body fights diseases, it is fighting antigens.

    • Your immune system releases T cells.

      • Killer T cells release enzymes to help destroy foreign molecules

      • Helper T cells help to make antibodies

    • Antibodies are proteins made to fight specific antigens.

    Memory b active immunity
    Memory B & Active Immunity

    • Memory B cells stay in your blood, and are ready to defend against the same pathogen at another time.

    • Active Immunity – the body creates its own antibodies in response to an antigen.

    • Passive Immunity – antibodies that have been made in another animal are introduced into the body.


    • A vaccine (shot) also helps you get active immunity.

    • Vaccines can help prevent a disease, but it cannot cure a disease.

    • As you grow you build immunity to separate pathogens and get shots to help build your immunity.


    • Many people have been killed by disease throughout history

    • People today develop treatments to help prevent or cure disease.

    • Some diseases today still can’t be cure:

      • Example SARS

        • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Pasteurization infectious disease
    Pasteurization & infectious Disease

    • Pasteurization – the process of heating a liquid to a temperature that kills most bacteria.

      • (Apple juice and milk are pasteurized)

  • Infectious Disease is a disease that is spread from an infected organism to another.

    • They can be spread by direct contact, through air or water, or by rats, mice, birds and misquitoes.

  • Joseph lister
    Joseph Lister

    • He discovered being clean helps to stay healthy. He discovered soap.

    • Washing your hands frequently will help you avoid catching illness.

    Hiv and aids
    HIV and AIDS

    • HIV – human immunodeficiency virus. It is a pathogen that lives in blood and body fluids.

    • AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

      • AIDS attack the bodies immune system and does not allow it to fight infections

    Noninfectious disease
    Noninfectious Disease

    • Diseases that are not spread from person to another.

      • Diabetes, allergies, and cancer.

    • Some noninfectious diseases are chronic, which means they last for a long period of time.

    Allergens diabetes
    Allergens & Diabetes

    • An overly strong reaction of the immune system to a foreign substance.

    • Allergens cause allergic reactions.

      • Dust, chemicals, pollen, insect stings, foods, and molds

    • Diabetes – a chronic disease that has to do with insulin (sugar) levels in your body.

      • Type 1 – too little or no insulin

      • Type 2 – People’s bodies cannot properly use the insulin


    • A group of diseases that cause an uncontrolled cell growth.

    • Can occur in any part of the body.

    • They are still being researched to be better understood.