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Cardiovascular System. The cardiovascular sys is composed of heart and blood vessels Circulates blood to supply oxygen and remove waste from body cells Pulmonary circuit – sends oxygen-poor blood to lungs

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

The cardiovascular sys is composed of heart and blood vessels

    • Circulates blood to supply oxygen and remove waste from body cells
    • Pulmonary circuit – sends oxygen-poor blood to lungs
    • Systemic circuit – sends oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to all body cells and removes wastes
  • Structure of Heart
    • About 14 cm long and 9cm wide
    • Enclosed in pericardium
      • Tough layer of dense connective tissue
    • Epicardium – protects heart by reducing friction, includes capillaries and nerve fibers, often contains fat
slide4

Myocardium – thickest layer, made of cardiac muscle

    • Endocardium – epithelium and connective tissue, lines the chambers of heart and valves
    • Coronary arteries – supply heart with blood
    • Cardiac veins – drain blood that has passed through capillaries of myocardium
  • Heart Chambers and Valves
    • 4 hollow chambers
    • Upper – right and left atrium
    • Lower – right and left ventricle
    • Major valves prevent blood from flowing the wrong direction
      • Tricuspid valve
      • Pulmonary valve
      • Mitral valve
      • Aortic valve
slide6

Blood from systemic circuit

  • Venaecavae and coronary sinus
  • Right atrium
    • Tricuspid valve
  • Right Ventricle
    • Pulmonary artery
  • Pulmonary trunk
  • Pulmonary arteries
  • Alveolar capillaries (lungs)
  • Pulmonary Veins
  • Left atrium
    • Mitral valve
  • Left ventricle
    • Aortic valve
  • Aorta
  • Blood to systemic circuit
heart actions
Heart Actions
  • Systole – contract
  • Diastole – relax
  • Cardiac cycle – Atria contract/ventricles relax

Ventricles relax/ atria contract

  • Heart Sounds
    • Lubb-dubb
    • Lubb - AV valves closing
    • Dubb – closing of pulmonary and aortic valves
  • Electrocardiogram – ECG records electrical changes in the myocardium during cardiac cycle
slide8

Blood Pressure

    • The force blood exerts against the inner walls of blood vessels
    • Arterial blood pressure
      • The made mainly by heart action; rises and falls with parts of cardiac cycle
      • Systolic pressure occurs when ventricle contracts; diastolic pressure is when ventricle relaxes
      • Expanding and recoiling of the arterial wall is what we detect as pulse
      • Upper number is systolic pressure, lower number is diastolic pressure
blood vessels
Blood Vessels
  • Arteries and arterioles
    • Adapted to carry blood under high pressure
    • Arterioles are branches of arteries
    • Arteries carry blood away from the heart
  • Arterial System
    • Branches of aorta
      • Ascending aorta – right and left coronary artery
      • Branches of aortic arch – brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian arteries
      • Descending aorta – throacic and abdominal groups
      • Subclavian and common carotid – to brain, head and neck
slide11

Capillaries

    • Connect arterioles and venules
    • Single layer of squamous epithelial cells that form semipermeable membrane
    • Gases, nutrients and metabolic by-products are exchanged between capillary blood and tissue fluid
    • Materials move through diffusion
slide12

Venules and veins

    • Venules continue from capillaries and merge to form veins
    • Veins carry blood to the heart
    • Many veins contain flaplike valves that open to allow blood to flow to the heart but close to prevent back flow
  • Venous System
    • Larger veins usually run parallel to major arteries
    • Veins from head, neck, and face – jugular; unite with subclavian veins to form brachiocephalic veins
    • Veins from upper limb and shoulder – sets of superficial and deep veins drain the upper limb
    • Digital veins drain into pairs of radial veins and ulnar veins which merge to form a pair of brachial veins
slide14

Lifespan Changes

    • Plaque build-up can begin early
    • Fibrous connective tissue and adipose tissue enlarge the heart by filling in when the number and size of cardiac muscle cells fall
    • Heart rate and output decline slightly with age
    • Blood pressure increases with age and resting heart rate decreases