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AGE OF REASON – 1760s-1790s. Age of Reason Ojectives/Goals. RI 11.1: Cites strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly and through inference

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Age of reason ojectives goals
Age of Reason Ojectives/Goals

  • RI 11.1: Cites strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly and through inference

  • RI 11.2: Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of a text

  • RI 11.3: Analyze a complex set of ideas of sequence of events

  • RI 11.4: Determine meanings of words: connotative and denotative; figurative language; analyze how word choice affects tone

  • RI 11.5: Analyze the effectiveness of structure in an argument

  • RI 11.8: Evaluate the premise, purpose, and effectiveness of argument in legal documents

Age of reason
Age of Reason

  • Age of Reason (Enlightenment)

  • Rationalism

  • Began in Europe with scientists and Philosophers of 17th and 18th centuries

  • Belief that human beings can arrive at “truth” by using reason rather than relying on the authority of the past, on religion, or on intuition

  • Compared God to a clockmaker – universe is a clock, humans are cogs in the machine


  • Deism

  • “Deism is the belief in a supreme being, who remains unknowable and untouchable. God is viewed as merely the “first cause” and underlying principle of rationality in the universe. Deists believe in a god of nature -- a noninterventionist creator -- who permits the universe to run itself according to natural laws. Like a “clockmaker god” initiating the cosmic process, the universe moves forward, without needing God’s supervision. ”(“Deism

  •  - Nature“).


  • Major Literary Theme:

  •  Reasoning

  • Protest and Rebellion

  • Literature that protests or rebels against an authority.


  • Rhetoric: Persuasion in Writing

  • Rhetoric: The study of writing or speaking as a means of communication or persuasion

  • Revolutionary Writers used persuasion as a primary style of writing.

  • Persuasive writing is writing that persuades or convinces the reader to think or do what the author intends.

  •  Appeals are how a writer/speaker tries to convince his or her intended audience. Three of the “biggies” are logos, ethos and pathos.


  • Logos

  • Logical appeals (logos) persuading by the use of reasoning

  • Deductive argument-begins with a generalization and moves toward a specific conclusion.

  • Inductive argument-begins with pieces of specific evidence and draws a general conclusion from this.

Appeals cont
Appeals cont.

  • Ethos

  • Pathos

  • Ethical appeals (ethos) persuading by character of author

  • Emotional appeals (pathos) persuades audiences by arousing the emotions

Rhetorical Triangle Information

Persuasive structure
Persuasive Structure

  • Introduction of the topic of the paper and the thesis statement.

  • State the facts of the case.

  • Prove the thesis with your arguments.

  • Disprove opposing arguments. (Refutation)

  • Restate thesis.

Rhetorical devices
Rhetorical devices

  • Propaganda

  • “information, ideas, opinions or images, often only giving one part of an argument, which are broadcast,

  • published or in some other way spread with the intention of influencing people's opinions” (Cambridge Dictionary Online).

Rhetorical devices1
Rhetorical devices

  • Rhetorical Question

  • A rhetorical question is one that requires no answer because the answer is obvious and doesn't need to be stated . The speaker (of the rhetorical question) is not looking for an answer but is making some kind of a point, as in an argument.

Rhetorical devices2
Rhetorical devices

  • Anaphora:

  •   Irony

  • the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses

  • expression of something which is contrary to the intended meaning; the words say one thing but mean another.

Rhetorical devices3
Rhetorical Devices

  • Parallel Structure (aka Parallelism)

  • Allusion

  • The repetition of words, phrases, and clauses in a sentence or paragraph used to emphasize an idea.

  • Allusions are often indirect or brief references to literature, mythology, Bible, or history

Rhetorical devices4
Rhetorical devices

  • Figurative Language – metaphor, simile, imagery

  • Syllogism

  • Used to create pathos

  • A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.


  • We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

  • Why are the words “We, the people of the United States,” important?

  • Paraphrase.

  • How have we accomplishes these 5 goals?

  • How can average citizens make this true in our lives?

  • Which literary device(s) are used in the Preamble?