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  1. Nachos Instructional OS CS 270, Tao Yang, Spring 2011

  2. What is Nachos OS? • Allow students to examine, modify and execute operating system software. • A skeletal OS that supports • kernel threads • user-level processes • Simulates MIPS instruction execution. • Running on a virtual machine, executed as a single Unix process in a hosting OS. • Over 9K lines of C++ code. • Can understand its basic mechanisms by reading about 1-2K lines of code.

  3. System Layers User process User process Nachos kernel threads Thread 1 Thread 2 Thread N Nachos OS modules (Threads mgm, File System, Code execution/memory mapping, System calls/Interrupt) Simulated MIPS Machine (CPU, Memory, Disk, Console) Base Operating System (Linux for our class)

  4. Steps to Install Nachos • Obtain and install Nachos source code. • Copy the source code from ~cs270t/nachosSept20.tar.gz • Compile the source code using gmake • Run threads demo under the threads subdirectory (just run kernel test threads). • Run user program demo under the userprog subdirectory. • http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~cs270t/HW/warmup.html

  5. Nachos code directory • machine --- Basic machine specification (MIPS simulator). • threads --- threads management (HW1). • userprog -- binary code execution and system calls (HW2). • vm -- virtual memory (HW3). • filesys -- file system (HW3) • test -- binary test code • network -- networking protocol • bin -- utilities/tools (binary format conversion)

  6. Source code reading and HW1 Objectives of next 2 weeks • Scan through ~1,000-2,000 lines of code under threads directory • Learn how context switch is accomplished among threads. • Learn how thread scheduling is done. • Learn how locks/synchronization are implemented and used. • Complete HW1 • Few hundred lines of code • Sample solution for Task 1, 2, &3 are available

  7. Single-threaded vs multithreaded Process

  8. Sample Example of Nacho Threads main () { Thread *t1 = new Thread("forked thread1"); Thread *t2 = new Thread("forked thread2"); t1->Fork(SimpleThread, 1); t2->Fork(SimpleThread, 2); SimpleThread(3); } SimpleThread(int i) { printf(“Hello %d\n”, i); currentThread->Yield(); } Create 2 new threads. Start to fork and execute a function in each child thread. Parent also executes the same function Function executed by threads

  9. Nachos Threads • Nachos threads execute and share the same code, share same global variables. • Nachos scheduler maintains a ready list, containing all threads that are ready to execute. • Each thread is in one of four states: READY, RUNNING, BLOCKED, JUST_CREATED. • Each thread object maintains a context block. • Thread object supports the following operations: • Thread(char *debugName). Create a thread. • Fork(VoidFunctionPtr func, int arg). Let a thread execute a function. • Yield(). Suspend the calling thread and select a new one for execution. • Sleep(). Suspend the current thread, change its state to BLOCKED, and remove it from the ready list • Finish()

  10. Nachos Thread States and Transitions running (user) When running in user mode, the thread executes within the machine simulator. HW 2 covers this. In HW 1 we are only concerned with the states in this box. Machine::Run, ExceptionHandler interrupt or exception Thread::Yield running (kernel) Thread::Sleep Scheduler::Run blocked ready Scheduler::ReadyToRun

  11. Thread Switching • Switching involves suspending current thread, saving its state, and restoring the state of new thread. • Following code involved in execution: the old code, the new code, and the code that performs switching. • Switch(oldThread, newThread): • Save all registers in oldThread's context block. • Save the program address to be used when the old thread is resumed. • Load new values into the registers from the context block of the new thread. • Once the saved PC of the new thread is loaded, Switch() is no longer executing.

  12. Scheduler object for thread scheduling • A scheduler decides which thread to run next by scanning the ready list. • The scheduler is invoked whenever the current thread gives up the CPU. • The current Nachos scheduling policy is round-robin: new threads are appended to the end of the ready list, and the scheduler selects the front of the list. • The Scheduler object has the following operations: • ReadyToRun(Thread *thread). Make thread ready to run and place it on the ready list. • Thread *FindNextToRun() • Run(Thread *nextThread)

  13. Semaphore object for thread synchronization • Disable and re-enable interrupts to achieve mutual exclusion (e.g., by calling Interrupt::SetLevel()). • Operations for a Semaphore object: • Semaphore(char* debugName, int initialValue) • P(): Decrement the semaphore's count, blocking the caller if the count is zero. • V() :Increment the semaphore's count, releasing one thread if any are blocked waiting on the count.

  14. Key steps when Nachos executes After you type ``nachos'' under threads subdirectory: • It is executing as a single Unix process. • The main() calls • Initialize() to start up interrupt handling, create a scheduler for managing the ready queue. • ThreadTest() (to be explained for HW 1). • currentThread->Finish() to let other threads continue to run.

  15. Key Calling graph when Nachos executes under thread directory StackAllocate() in thread.cc All files are in threads directory. Thread:Fork () in thread.cc Initialize() in system.cc SWITCH () in switch.s FindNextToRun () in scheduler.cc Thread:Yield () in thread.cc main() in main.cc ThreadRoot () in switch.s ReadyToRun () in scheduler.cc ThreadTest () in threadtest.cc func() such as SimpleThread() in ThreadTest.cc Run () in scheduler.cc currentThread->Finish () in threadtest.cc

  16. ThreadRoot() • Executed by SWITCH(oldThread, nextThread) • jal StartupPC # call startup procedure. For a new thread, it is InterruptEnable(). • move a0, InitialArg • jal InitialPC # call main procedure • jal WhenDonePC # when were done, call clean up procedure.

  17. QA • When will thread:Finish() be called? • At the end of the forked thread. Check ThreadRoot assembly code. • At the end of the main() thread. • Thread:Finish() calls scheduler->run() to run a new thread. Will the old thread (that calls Thread:Finish()) be returned and continue to be executed? • No. Because the following is called first. threadToBeDestroyed = currentThread; • Scheduler->Run() will delete such TCB

  18. QA • In Sleep() or Yield(), the interrupt is turned off before calling scheduler->() to execute another thread. • When will interrupt be turned on? • In executing the switched thread, ThreadRoot() assembly code first executes StartupPC function which is • machineState[StartupPCState] = (int) InterruptEnable;

  19. HW 1: threads & synchronization • Work under threads subdirectory. • Modify ThreadTest() to do simple threads programming (spawning multiple threads). • Implement locks and condition variables (missing from the file synch.cc). • Workload: • Read Nachos code and add few hundred lines of code. • Undocumented sample solution is provided.

  20. HW 1: Files involved Key files • main.cc, threadtest.cc -- a simple test of our thread routines. • thread.h thread.cc -- Nachos thread data structure and operations. • scheduler.h scheduler.cc -- The thread ready list. • synch.h synch.cc -- synchronization routines. Other related files. • synchlist.h, synchlist.cc -- synchronized access to lists using locks/conditions (useful examples for your programming). • list.h list.cc -- generic list management. • system.h, system.cc -- Nachos startup/shutdown routines. • utility.h utility.cc -- some useful definitions and debugging routines. • interrupt.h interrupt.cc -- manage interrupts. • time.h timer.cc -- clock emulation. • switch.h, switch.s -- assembly code for thread switching. • stats.h stats.cc -- collect interesting statistics.

  21. HW Sample solution ~cs240t/sampleSolutionCode.tar.gz • Has an old solution for HW1, HW2, HW3 • HW1  threads subdirectory. ~400 lines of new code. ~50% are for Tasks 1/2/3. Code for task 4 is not useful. • HW2 -> userprog subdirectory. ~1300 lines of new code. • HW3 -> vm and filesys. ~1200 lines of new code. 800 may be enough. • Caveat: • Mixed benefits/problems in using other students’ code. e.g. Not well documented, not fully tested. Possibly awkward design. • Still your responsibility to produce good solutions (correctness, performance, style).